Université PSL

Publications

RECHERCHER

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Large scale control and programming of gene expression using CRISPR.
Deyell M, Ameta S, Nghe P.
Semin Cell Dev Biol. - S1084-9521(18) 30110-1 - DOI: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2019.05.013 - 2019
The control of gene expression in cells and organisms allows to unveil gene to function relationships and to reprogram biological responses. Several systems, such as Zinc fingers, TALE (Transcription activator-like effectors), and siRNAs (small-interfering RNAs), have been exploited to achieve this. However, recent advances in Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) have overshadowed them due to high specificity, compatibility with many different organisms, and design flexibility. In this review we summarize state-of-the art for CRISPR-Cas9 technology for large scale gene perturbation studies, including single gene and multiple genes knock-out, knock-down, knock-up libraries, and their associated screening assays. We feature in particular the combination of these methods with single-cell transcriptomics approaches. Finally, we highlight the application of CRISPR-Cas9 systems in building synthetic circuits that can be interfaced with gene networks to control cellular states.
Large work extraction and the Landauer limit in a continuous Maxwell demon
Marco Ribezzi Crivellari
Nature Physics - 15(7) 93 - DOI: 10.1038/s41567-019-0481-0 - 2019
The relation between entropy and information dates back to the classical Maxwell demon paradox¹, a thought experiment proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell to violate the second law of thermodynamics. A variant of the classical Maxwell demon is the Szilard engine, proposed by Leo Szilard in 1929¹. In it, at a given time, the demon observes the compartment occupied by a single molecule in a vessel and extracts work by operating a pulley device. Here, we introduce the continuous Maxwell demon, a device capable of extracting arbitrarily large amounts of work per cycle by repeated measurements of the state of a system, and experimentally test it in single DNA hairpin pulling experiments. In the continuous Maxwell demon, the demon monitors the state of the DNA hairpin (folded or unfolded) by observing it at equally spaced time intervals, but it extracts work only when the molecule changes state. We demonstrate that the average maximum work per cycle that can be extracted by the continuous Maxwell demon is limited by the information content of the stored sequences, in agreement with the second law. Work extraction efficiency is found to be maximal in the large information-content limit where work extraction is fuelled by rare events.
High-throughput single-cell ChIP-seq identifies heterogeneity of chromatin states in breast cancer
Grosselin K1,2,3, Durand A4,5, Marsolier J, Poitou A, Marangoni E, Nemati F, Dahmani A, Lameiras S, Reyal F, Frenoy O, Pousse Y, Reichen M, Woolfe A, Brenan C, Griffiths AD, Vallot C, Gérard A.i
Nat Genet. - 51(6) 1060-1066 - doi: 10.1038/s41588-019-0424-9. - 2019
Modulation of chromatin structure via histone modification is a major epigenetic mechanism and regulator of gene expression. However, the contribution of chromatin features to tumor heterogeneity and evolution remains unknown. Here we describe a high-throughput droplet microfluidics platform to profile chromatin landscapes of thousands of cells at single-cell resolution. Using patient-derived xenograft models of acquired resistance to chemotherapy and targeted therapy in breast cancer, we found that a subset of cells within untreated drug-sensitive tumors share a common chromatin signature with resistant cells, undetectable using bulk approaches. These cells, and cells from the resistant tumors, have lost chromatin marks-H3K27me3, which is associated with stable transcriptional repression-for genes known to promote resistance to treatment. This single-cell chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing approach paves the way to study the role of chromatin heterogeneity, not just in cancer but in other diseases and healthy systems, notably during cellular differentiation and development.
Experimental evidence of symmetry breaking of transition-path times
J.Gladrow, M. Ribezzi-Crivellari, F. Ritort & U. F. Keyser
Nature Communications - 10 55 - doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07873-9 - 2019
While thermal rates of state transitions in classical systems have been studied for almost a century, associated transition-path times have only recently received attention. Uphill and downhill transition paths between states at different free energies should be statistically indistinguishable. Here, we systematically investigate transition-path-time symmetry and report evidence of its breakdown on the molecular- and meso-scale out of equilibrium. In automated Brownian dynamics experiments, we establish first-passage-time symmetries of colloids driven by femtoNewton forces in holographically-created optical landscapes confined within microchannels. Conversely, we show that transitions which couple in a path-dependent manner to fluctuating forces exhibit asymmetry. We reproduce this asymmetry in folding transitions of DNA-hairpins driven out of equilibrium and suggest a topological mechanism of symmetry breakdown. Our results are relevant to measurements that capture a single coordinate in a multidimensional free energy landscape, as encountered in electrophysiology and single-molecule fluorescence experiments.
Polarization of Myosin II Refines Tissue Material Properties to Buffer Mechanical Stress.
Duda M, Kirkland NJ, Khalilgharibi N, Tozluoglu M, Yuen AC, Carpi N, Bove A, Piel M, Charras G, Baum B, Mao Y.
Dev Cell - 48(2) 245-260. - doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2018.12.020. - 2019
As tissues develop, they are subjected to a variety of mechanical forces. Some of these forces are instrumental in the development of tissues, while others can result in tissue damage. Despite our extensive understanding of force-guided morphogenesis, we have only a limited understanding of how tissues prevent further morphogenesis once the shape is determined after development. Here, through the development of a tissue-stretching device, we uncover a mechanosensitive pathway that regulates tissue responses to mechanical stress through the polarization of actomyosin across the tissue. We show that stretch induces the formation of linear multicellular actomyosin cables, which depend on Diaphanous for their nucleation. These stiffen the epithelium, limiting further changes in shape, and prevent fractures from propagating across the tissue. Overall, this mechanism of force-induced changes in tissue mechanical properties provides a general model of force buffering that serves to preserve the shape of tissues under conditions of mechanical stress.
Droplet generation at Hele-Shaw microfluidic T-junction
I. Chakraborty, J. Ricouvier, P. Yazghur, P. Tabeling, A. Leshansky
Phys. Fluids - 31(2) 022010 - - 2019
Selection Dynamics in Transient Compartmentalization.
Blokhuis A, Lacoste D, Nghe P, Peliti L
Phys. Rev. Lett. - 158101 120(15): - doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004972 - 2018
Transient compartments have been recently shown to be able to maintain functional replicators in the context of prebiotic studies. Here, we show that a broad class of selection dynamics is able to achieve this goal. We identify two key parameters, the relative amplification of nonactive replicators (parasites) and the size of compartments. These parameters account for competition and diversity, and the results are relevant to similar multilevel selection problems, such as those found in virus-host ecology and trait group selection.
Coupled catabolism and anabolism in autocatalytic RNA sets.
Arsène S, Ameta S, Lehman N, Griffiths AD, Nghe P.
Nucleic Acids Res. - 46(18) 9660-9666 - doi: 10.1093/nar/gky598. - 2018
The ability to process molecules available in the environment into useable building blocks characterizes catabolism in contemporary cells and was probably critical for the initiation of life. Here we show that a catabolic process in collectively autocatalytic sets of RNAs allows diversified substrates to be assimilated. We modify fragments of the Azoarcus group I intron and find that the system is able to restore the original native fragments by a multi-step reaction pathway. This allows in turn the formation of catalysts by an anabolic process, eventually leading to the accumulation of ribozymes. These results demonstrate that rudimentary self-reproducing RNA systems based on recombination possess an inherent capacity to assimilate an expanded repertoire of chemical resources and suggest that coupled catabolism and anabolism could have arisen at a very early stage in primordial living systems.
Sign epistasis caused by hierarchy within signalling cascades
Nghe P, Kogenaru M, Tans SJ
Nat Commun - 1451 9660-9666 - 10.1038/s41467-018-03644-8. - 2018
The ability to process molecules available in the environment into useable building blocks characterizes catabolism in contemporary cells and was probably critical for the initiation of life. Here we show that a catabolic process in collectively autocatalytic sets of RNAs allows diversified substrates to be assimilated. We modify fragments of the Azoarcus group I intron and find that the system is able to restore the original native fragments by a multi-step reaction pathway. This allows in turn the formation of catalysts by an anabolic process, eventually leading to the accumulation of ribozymes. These results demonstrate that rudimentary self-reproducing RNA systems based on recombination possess an inherent capacity to assimilate an expanded repertoire of chemical resources and suggest that coupled catabolism and anabolism could have arisen at a very early stage in primordial living systems.
Selection Dynamics in Transient Compartmentalization
doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.158101
Phys. Rev. Lett. - 120 158101 - doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.158101 - 2018
Transient compartments have been recently shown to be able to maintain functional replicators in the context of prebiotic studies. Here, we show that a broad class of selection dynamics is able to achieve this goal. We identify two key parameters, the relative amplification of nonactive replicators (parasites) and the size of compartments. These parameters account for competition and diversity, and the results are relevant to similar multilevel selection problems, such as those found in virus-host ecology and trait group selection.

347 publications.