Université PSL



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Droplet generation at Hele-Shaw microfluidic T-junction
I. Chakraborty, J. Ricouvier, P. Yazghur, P. Tabeling, A. Leshansky
Phys. Fluids - 31(2) 022010 - - 2019
A tuneable microfluidic system for long duration chemotaxis experiments in a 3D collagen matrix
Aizel K, Clark AG, Simon A, Geraldo S, Funfak A, Vargas P, Bibette J, Vignjevic DM, Bremond N.
Lab. Chip - 7;17(22): 3851-3861 - DOI: 10.1039/c7lc00649g - 2017
In many cell types, migration can be oriented towards a chemical stimulus. In mammals, for example, embryonic cells migrate to follow developmental cues, immune cells migrate toward sites of inflammation, and cancer cells migrate away from the primary tumour and toward blood vessels during metastasis. Understanding how cells migrate in 3D environments in response to chemical cues is thus crucial to understanding directed migration in normal and disease states. To date, chemotaxis in mammalian cells has been primarily studied using 2D migration models. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the mechanisms by which cells migrate in 2D and 3D environments dramatically differ, and cells in their native environments are confronted with a complex chemical milieu. To address these issues, we developed a microfluidic device to monitor the behaviour of cells embedded in a 3D collagen matrix in the presence of complex concentration fields of chemoattractants. This tuneable microsystem enables the generation of (1) homogeneous, stationary gradients set by a purely diffusive mechanism, or (2) spatially evolving, stationary gradients, set by a convection-diffusion mechanism. The device allows for stable gradients over several days and is large enough to study the behaviour of large cell aggregates. We observe that primary mature dendritic cells respond uniformly to homogeneous diffusion gradients, while cell behaviour is highly position-dependent in spatially variable convection-diffusion gradients. In addition, we demonstrate a directed response of cancer cells migrating away from tumour-like aggregates in the presence of soluble chemokine gradients. Together, this microfluidic device is a powerful system to observe the response of different cells and aggregates to tuneable chemical gradients.
Gradients of Rac1 nanoclusters support spatial patterns of Rac1 signaling
Amanda Remorino, Simon De Beco, Fanny Cayrac, Fahima Di Federico, Gaetan Cornilleau, Alexis Gautreau, Maria Carla Parrini, Jean-Baptiste Masson, Maxime Dahan, Mathieu Coppey
Cell Reports - 21(7) 1922-1935 - DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.10.069 - 2017
Rac1 is a small RhoGTPase switch that orchestrates actin branching in space and time and protrusion/retraction cycles of the lamellipodia at the cell front during mesenchymal migration. Biosensor imaging has revealed a graded concentration of active GTP-loaded Rac1 in protruding regions of the cell. Here, using single-molecule imaging and super-resolution microscopy, we show an additional supramolecular organization of Rac1. We find that Rac1 partitions and is immobilized into nanoclusters of 50-100 molecules each. These nanoclusters assemble because of the interaction of the polybasic tail of Rac1 with the phosphoinositide lipids PIP2 and PIP3. The additional interactions with GEFs and possibly GAPs, downstream effectors, and other partners are responsible for an enrichment of Rac1 nanoclusters in protruding regions of the cell. Our results show that subcellular patterns of Rac1 activity are supported by gradients of signaling nanodomains of heterogeneous molecular composition, which presumably act as discrete signaling platforms.
Chromatin immunoprecipitation in microfluidic droplets: towards fast and cheap analyses
Teste, Bruno, Champ, Jerome ; Londono-Vallejo, Arturo, Descroix, Stephanie, Malaquin, Laurent, Viovy, Jean-Louis, Draskovic, Irena, Mottet, Guillaume
Lab. Chip - 17, 3: 530-537 - DOI: 10.1039/c6lc01535b - 2017
Genetic organization is governed by the interaction of DNA with histone proteins, and differential modifications of these proteins is a fundamental mechanism of gene regulation. Histone modifications are primarily studied through chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, however conventional ChIP procedures are time consuming, laborious and require a large number of cells. Here we report for the first time the development of ChIP in droplets based on a microfluidic platform combining nanoliter droplets, magnetic beads (MB) and magnetic tweezers (MT). The droplet approach enabled compartmentalization and improved mixing, while reducing the consumption of samples and reagents in an integrated workflow. Anti-histone antibodies grafted to MB were used as a solid support to capture and transfer the target chromatin from droplets to droplets in order to perform chromatin immunoprecipitation, washing, elution and purification of DNA. We designed a new ChIP protocol to investigate four different types of modified histones with known roles in gene activation or repression. We evaluated the performances of this new ChIP in droplet assay in comparison with conventional methods. The proposed technology dramatically reduces analytical time from a few days to 7 hours, simplifies the ChIP protocol and decreases the number of cells required by 100 fold while maintaining a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Therefore this droplet-based ChIP assay represents a new, highly advantageous and convenient approach to epigenetic analyses.
A simple and low-cost chip bonding solution for high pressure, high temperature and biological applications Serra, M ; Pereiro, I; Yamada, A; Viovy, J. –L.; Descroix, S. Ferraro
Serra, M ; Pereiro, I; Yamada, A; Viovy, J. –L.; Descroix, S. Ferraro
Lab. Chip - 0.71111111111 629-634 - doi: 10.1039/c6lc01319h - 2017
The sealing of microfluidic devices remains a complex and time-consuming process requiring specific equipment and protocols: a universal method is thus highly desirable. We propose here the use of a commercially available sealing tape as a robust, versatile, reversible solution, compatible with cell and molecular biology protocols, and requiring only the application of manually achievable pressures. The performance of the seal was tested with regards to the most commonly used chip materials. For most materials, the bonding resisted 5 bars at room temperature and 1 bar at 95 °C. This method should find numerous uses, ranging from fast prototyping in the laboratory to implementation in low technology environments or industrial production.
Magnetic fluidized bed for solid phase extraction in microfluidic systems
Pereiro, Iago ; Tabnaoui, Sanae ; Fermigier, Marc ; du Roure, Olivia ; Descroix, Stephanie ; Viovy, Jean-Louis ; Malaquin, Laurent
Lab. Chip - 17, 9 1603-1615 - DOI: 10.1039/C7LC00063D - 2017
Fluidization, a process in which a granular solid phase behaves like a fluid under the influence of an imposed upward fluid flow, is routinely used in many chemical and biological engineering applications. It brings, to applications involving fluid–solid exchanges, advantages such as high surface to volume ratio, constant mixing, low flow resistance, continuous operation and high heat transfer. We present here the physics of a new miniaturized, microfluidic fluidized bed, in which gravity is replaced by a magnetic field created by an external permanent magnet, and the solid phase is composed of magnetic microbeads with diameters ranging from 1 to 5 μm. These beads can be functionalized with different ligands, catalysts or enzymes, in order to use the fluidized bed as a continuous purification column or bioreactor. It allows flow-through operations at flow rates ranging from 100 nL min−1 up to 5 μL min−1 at low driving pressures (<100 mbar) with intimate liquid/solid contact and a continuous recirculation of beads for enhanced target capture efficiencies. The physics of the system presents significant differences as compared to conventional fluidized beds, which are studied here. The effects of magnetic field profile, flow chamber shape and magnetic bead dipolar interactions on flow regimes are investigated, and the different regimes of operation are described. Qualitative rules to obtain optimal operation are deduced. Finally, an exemplary use as a platform for immunocapture is provided, presenting a limit of detection of 0.2 ng mL−1 for 200 μL volume samples.
The power of solid supports in multiphase and droplet-based microfluidics: towards clinical applications
Serra, M; Ferraro, D; Pereiro, I; Viovy, J-L; Descroix, S
Lab. Chip - 17 3979-3999 - DOI:10.1039/c7lc00582b - 2017
Multiphase and droplet microfluidic systems are growing in relevance in bioanalytical-related fields, especially due to the increased sensitivity, faster reaction times and lower sample/reagent consumption of many of its derived bioassays. Often applied to homogeneous (liquid/liquid) reactions, innovative strategies for the implementation of heterogeneous (typically solid/liquid) processes have recently been proposed. These involve, for example, the extraction and purification of target analytes from complex matrices or the implementation of multi-step protocols requiring efficient washing steps. To achieve this, solid supports such as functionalized particles (micro or nanometric) presenting different physical properties (e.g. magnetic, optical or others) are used for the binding of specific entities. The manipulation of such supports with different microfluidic principles has both led to the miniaturization of existing biomedical protocols and the development of completely new strategies for diagnostics and research. In this review, multiphase and droplet-based microfluidic systems using solid suspensions are presented and discussed with a particular focus on: i) working principles and technological developments of the manipulation strategies and ii) applications, critically discussing the level of maturity of these systems, which can range from initial proofs of concept to real clinical validations.
Optimizing Hyperuniformity in Self-Assembled Bidisperse Emulsions
Joshua Ricouvier, Romain Pierrat, Rémi Carminati, Patrick Tabeling, and Pavel Yazhgur
Phys. Rev. Lett. - 119 208001 - doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett. - 2017
We study long range density fluctuations (hyperuniformity) in two-dimensional jammed packings of bidisperse droplets. Taking advantage of microfluidics, we systematically span a large range of size and concentration ratios of the two droplet populations. We identify various defects increasing long range density fluctuations mainly due to organization of local particle environment. By choosing an appropriate bidispersity, we fabricate materials with a high level of hyperuniformity. Interesting transparency properties of these optimized materials are established based on numerical simulations.
Nanoscale capillary freezing of ionic liquids confined between metallic interfaces and the role of electronic screening
J. Comtet, A. Niguès, V. Kaiser, B. Coasne, L. Bocquet and A. Siria, Nature Materials
Nature Materials - 16 634‐639 - doi: 10.1038/nmat4880 - 2017
Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are new materials with fundamental importance for energy storage and active lubrication. They are unusual liquids, which challenge the classical frameworks of electrolytes, whose behaviour at electrified interfaces remains elusive, with exotic responses relevant to their electrochemical activity. Using tuning-fork-based atomic force microscope nanorheological measurements, we explore here the properties of confined RTILs, unveiling a dramatic change of the RTIL towards a solid-like phase below a threshold thickness, pointing to capillary freezing in confinement. This threshold is related to the metallic nature of the confining materials, with more metallic surfaces facilitating freezing. This behaviour is interpreted in terms of the shift of the freezing transition, taking into account the influence of the electronic screening on RTIL wetting of the confining surfaces. Our findings provide fresh views on the properties of confined RTIL with implications for their properties inside nanoporous metallic structures, and suggests applications to tune nanoscale lubrication with phase-changing RTILs, by varying the nature and patterning of the substrate, and application of active polarization.
New avenues for the large scale harvesting of blue energy
A. Siria and L. Bocquet
Nature Chemistry - 1 91 - DOI: 10.1038/s41570-017-0091 - 2017
Salinity gradients have been identified as promising clean, renewable and non-intermittent sources of energy — so-called blue energy. However, the low efficiency of current harvesting technologies is a major limitation for large-scale viability and is mostly due to the low performances of the membrane processes currently in use. Advances in materials fabrication with dedicated chemical properties can resolve this bottleneck and lead to a new class of membranes for blue-energy conversion. In this Perspective, we briefly present current technologies for the conversion of blue energy, describe their performances and note their limitations. We then discuss new avenues for the development of a new class of membranes, combining considerations in nanoscale fluid dynamics and surface chemistry. Finally, we discuss how new functionalities originating from the exotic behaviour of fluids in the nanoscale regime can further boost energy conversion, making osmotic energy a tangible, clean alternative.

291 publications.