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Cover Picture: Plasma Process. Polym
Laboratoire Procédés - Plasmas - Microsystèmes - Fatemeh Rezaei Yury Gorbanev Michael Chys Anton Nikiforov Stijn W. H. Van Hulle Paul Cos Annemie Bogaerts Nathalie De Geyter
Plasma Process - 15 6 - - 2018
Front Cover: Electrospinning solutions of polylactic acid in chloroform and 5,5‐N‐dimethylformamide were subjected to preelectrospinning plasma treatment (PEPT). A broad range of spectroscopic analytical techniques, mainly EEM and EPR, were performed to investigate the plasma‐induced chemistry in the organic solutions. The enhanced conductivity of the solutions was ascribed to the formation of plasma‐induced acids during PEPT. The synergistic effect of chemical changes leads to poly lactic acid nanofibers with uniform morphology.

Further details can be found in the article by Fatemeh Rezaei et al. (e1700226).
Online coupling of immunoextraction, digestion, and microliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of sarin and soman-butyrylcholinesterase adducts in human plasma
Laboratoire Sciences Analytiques Bioanalytiques et Miniaturisation - Maud Bonichon, Valentina Valbi, Audrey Combès, Charlotte Desoubries, Anne Bossée & Valérie Pichon
Anal. Bioanal. Chem - 410 pages1039–1051 - - 2018
Organophosphorus nerve agent (OPNA) adducts formed with human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE) can be used as biomarker of OPNA exposure. Indeed, intoxication by OPNAs can be confirmed by the LC/MS2 analysis of a specific HuBuChE nonapeptide on which OPNAs covalently bind. A fast, selective, and highly sensitive online method was developed to detect sarin and soman adducts in plasma, including immunoextraction by anti-HuBuChE antibodies, pepsin digestion on immobilized enzyme reactors (IMER), and microLC/MS2 analysis of the OPNA adducts. The potential of three different monoclonal antibodies, covalently grafted on sepharose, was compared for the extraction of HuBuChE. The online method developed with the most promising antibodies allowed the extraction of up to 100% of HuBuChE contained in plasma and the digestion of 45% of it in less than 40 min. Moreover, OPNA-HuBuChE adducts, aged OPNA adducts, and unadducted HuBuChE could be detected (with S/N > 2000), even in plasma spiked with a low concentration of OPNA (10 ng mL−1). Finally, the potential of this method was compared to approaches involving other affinity sorbents, already described for HuBuChE extraction.
Human odor and forensics: Towards Bayesian suspect identification using GC × GC–MS characterization of hand odor
Laboratoire Sciences Analytiques Bioanalytiques et Miniaturisation - lVincent Cuzuel Roman Leconte Guillaume Cognon Didier Thiébaut Jérôme Vial Charles Sauleau Isabelle Rivals
Journal of Chromatography B - 1092 379-385 - - 2018
A new method for identifying people by their odor is proposed. In this approach, subjects are characterized by a GC × GC–MS chromatogram of a sample of their hand odor. The method is based on the definition of a distance between odor chromatograms and the application of Bayesian hypothesis testing. Using a calibration panel of subjects for whom several odor chromatograms are available, the densities of the distance between chromatograms of the same person, and between chromatograms of different persons are estimated. Given the distance between a reference and a query chromatogram, the Bayesian framework provides an estimate of the probability that the corresponding two odor samples come from the same person. We tested the method on a panel that is fully independent from the calibration panel, with promising results for forensic applications.
Active modulation in neat carbon dioxide packed column comprehensive two-dimensional supercritical fluid chromatography
Laboratoire Sciences Analytiques Bioanalytiques et Miniaturisation - Orjen Petkovic Pierre Guibal Patrick Sassiat Jérôme Vial Didier Thiébaut
J. Chrom. A - 1536 176-184 - - 2018
After demonstrating in a first paper the feasibility of SFCxSFC without decompression of the mobile phase, a modified interface has been developed in order to perform active modulation between the two SFC dimensions. In this paper, it is shown that the new interface enabled independent control of modulation parameters in SFCxSFC and performed a band compression effect of solutes between the two SFC dimensions. The effectiveness of this new modulation process was studied using a Design of Experiments. The SFCxSFC prototype was applied to the analysis of a real oil sample to demonstrate the benefits of the active modulator; in comparison to our previous results obtained without active modulation, better separation was obtained with the new interface owing to the peak compression occurring in the modulator.
Zinc oxide nano-enabled microfluidic reactor for water purification and its applicability to volatile organic compounds
Laboratoire Sciences Analytiques Bioanalytiques et Miniaturisation - Imadeddine Azzouz, Yamina Ghozlane Habba, Martine Capochichi-Gnambodoe, Frédéric Marty, Jérôme Vial, Yamin Leprince-Wang & Tarik Bourouina
Microsystems & Nanoengineering - 4 17093 - 10.1038/micronano.2017.93 - 2018
This paper reports fast and efficient chemical decontamination of water within a tree-branched centimeter-scale microfluidic reactor. The microreactor integrates Zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) in situ grown acting as an efficient photocatalytic nanomaterial layer. Direct growth of ZnO NWs within the microfluidic chamber brings this photocatalytic medium at the very close vicinity of the water flow path, hence minimizing the required interaction time to produce efficient purification performance. We demonstrate a degradation efficiency of 95% in <5 s of residence time in one-pass only. According to our estimates, it becomes attainable using microfluidic reactors to produce decontamination of merely 1 l of water per day, typical of the human daily drinking water needs. To conduct our experiments, we have chosen a laboratory-scale case study as a seed for addressing the health concern of water contamination by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which remain difficult to remove using alternative decontamination techniques, especially those involving water evaporation. The contaminated water sample contains mixture of five pollutants: Benzene; Toluene; Ethylbenzene; m–p Xylenes; and o-Xylene (BTEX) diluted in water at 10 p.p.m. concentration of each. Degradation was analytically monitored in a selective manner until it falls below 1 p.p.m. for each of the five pollutants, corresponding to the maximum contaminant level (MCL) established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We also report on a preliminary study, investigating the nature of the chemical by-products after the photocatalytic VOCs degradation process.
Analytical methods for the monitoring of post-combustion CO2 capture process using amine solvents: A review
Laboratoire Sciences Analytiques Bioanalytiques et Miniaturisation - Lorena Cuccia José Dugay Domitille Bontemps Myriam Louis-Louisy Jérôme Vial
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control - 4 17093 - - 2018
Post-combustion CO2 capture is considered to be the most promising technology to limit the CO2 emissions from existing fossil fuel power plants. One of the main problems associated with the CO2 capture process is the degradation of amine solvents, which can negatively impact both human health and the environment. Degradation products are formed in the liquid phase of the solvent, but can also be emitted with the gaseous effluents, increasing the need for monitoring strategies. The present review proposes a critical analysis of the literature concerning the analytical strategies developed in the field of post-combustion capture to identify and quantify the main classes of degradation products formed; specifically amines, amides, aldehydes, nitrosamines and organic acids. Regarding the liquid phase, the principal analytical methods involved are Liquid Chromatography (LC) and Gas Chromatography (GC) for the analysis of amines and Ionic Chromatography (IC) for the analysis of organic and inorganic acids. Concerning aldehydes, the most described method is derivatization of the compounds with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine prior to LC analysis. In order to monitor the gaseous effluents, four methods have been described: FTIR, implementation of impingers, online MS analysis and sampling on solid sorbents.
Conventional and Neo-Antigenic Peptides Presented by β Cells Are Targeted by Circulating Naïve CD8+ T Cells in Type 1 Diabetic and Healthy Donors.
Laboratoire Spectrométrie de masse biologique et protéomique - Sergio Gonzalez-Duque , Marie Eliane Azoury , Maikel L Colli , Georgia Afonso , Jean-Valery Turatsinze , Laura Nigi , Ana Ines Lalanne , Guido Sebastiani , Alexia Carré , Sheena Pinto, Slobodan Culina , Noémie Corcos , Marco Bugliani , Pier
Cell Metab - 28(6) 946-960.e6. - doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.07.007. - 2018
Although CD8+ T-cell-mediated autoimmune β cell destruction occurs in type 1 diabetes (T1D), the target epitopes processed and presented by β cells are unknown. To identify them, we combined peptidomics and transcriptomics strategies. Inflammatory cytokines increased peptide presentation in vitro, paralleling upregulation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression. Peptide sources featured several insulin granule proteins and all known β cell antigens, barring islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein. Preproinsulin yielded HLA-A2-restricted epitopes previously described. Secretogranin V and its mRNA splice isoform SCG5-009, proconvertase-2, urocortin-3, the insulin gene enhancer protein ISL-1, and an islet amyloid polypeptide transpeptidation product emerged as antigens processed into HLA-A2-restricted epitopes, which, as those already described, were recognized by circulating naive CD8+ T cells in T1D and healthy donors and by pancreas-infiltrating cells in T1D donors. This peptidome opens new avenues to understand antigen processing by β cells and for the development of T cell biomarkers and tolerogenic vaccination strategies.
Quantitative Phosphoproteomic Analysis Reveals Shared and Specific Targets of Arabidopsis Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) MPK3, MPK4, and MPK6
Laboratoire Spectrométrie de masse biologique et protéomique - Naganand Rayapuram, Jean Bigeard, Hanna Alhoraibi, Ludovic Bonhomme, Anne-Marie Hesse, Joëlle Vinh, Heribert Hirt, Delphine Pflieger
Cell Metab - 17(1) 61-80 - DOI: 10.1074/mcp.RA117.000135 - 2018
In Arabidopsis, mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3, MPK4, and MPK6 constitute essential relays for a variety of functions including cell division, development and innate immunity. Although some substrates of MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 have been identified, the picture is still far from complete. To identify substrates of these MAPKs likely involved in cell division, growth and development we compared the phosphoproteomes of wild-type and mpk3, mpk4, and mpk6. To study the function of these MAPKs in innate immunity, we analyzed their phosphoproteomes following microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) treatment. Partially overlapping substrates were retrieved for all three MAPKs, showing target specificity to one, two or all three MAPKs in different biological processes. More precisely, our results illustrate the fact that the entity to be defined as a specific or a shared substrate for MAPKs is not a phosphoprotein but a particular (S/T)P phosphorylation site in a given protein. One hundred fifty-two peptides were identified to be differentially phosphorylated in response to MAMP treatment and/or when compared between genotypes and 70 of them could be classified as putative MAPK targets. Biochemical analysis of a number of putative MAPK substrates by phosphorylation and interaction assays confirmed the global phosphoproteome approach. Our study also expands the set of MAPK substrates to involve other protein kinases, including calcium-dependent (CDPK) and sugar nonfermenting (SnRK) protein kinases
Identification of BAG3 target proteins in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells by proteomic analysis
Laboratoire Spectrométrie de masse biologique et protéomique - Galdiero F, Bello AM, Spina A, Capiluongo A, Liuu S, De Marco M, Rosati A, Capunzo M, Napolitano M, Vuttariello E, Monaco M, Califano D, Turco MC, Chiappetta G, Vinh J, Chiappetta G
Cell Metab - 9(8) 8016-8026 - DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.23858 - 2018
BAG3 protein is an apoptosis inhibitor and is highly expressed in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer. We investigated the entire set of proteins modulated by BAG3 silencing in the human anaplastic thyroid 8505C cancer cells by using the Stable-Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture strategy combined with mass spectrometry analysis. By this approach we identified 37 up-regulated and 54 down-regulated proteins in BAG3-silenced cells. Many of these proteins are reportedly involved in tumor progression, invasiveness and resistance to therapies. We focused our attention on an oncogenic protein, CAV1, and a tumor suppressor protein, SERPINB2, that had not previously been reported to be modulated by BAG3. Their expression levels in BAG3-silenced cells were confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blot analyses, disclosing two novel targets of BAG3 pro-tumor activity. We also examined the dataset of proteins obtained by the quantitative proteomics analysis using two tools, Downstream Effect Analysis and Upstream Regulator Analysis of the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software. Our analyses confirm the association of the proteome profile observed in BAG3-silenced cells with an increase in cell survival and a decrease in cell proliferation and invasion, and highlight the possible involvement of four tumor suppressor miRNAs and TP53/63 proteins in BAG3 activity.
Physiological effects caused by microcystin-producing and non-microcystin producing Microcystis aeruginosa on medaka fish: A proteomic and metabolomic study on liver
Laboratoire Spectrométrie de masse biologique et protéomique - Séverine Le Manach , Benoit Sotton , Hélène Huet , Charlotte Duval , Alain Paris , Arul Marie , Claude Yépremian , Arnaud Catherine , Lucrèce Mathéron , Joelle Vinh , Marc Edery , Benjamin Marie
Environmental pollution - 234 523-537 - doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.11.011 - 2018
Cyanobacterial blooms have become a common phenomenon in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Microcystis is an important bloom-forming and toxin-producing genus in continental aquatic ecosystems, which poses a potential risk to Human populations as well as on aquatic organisms. Microcystis is known to produce along with various bioactive peptides, the microcystins (MCs) that have attracted more attention notably due to their high hepatotoxicity. To better understand the effects of cyanobacterial blooms on fish, medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) were sub-chronically exposed to either non-MC-producing or MC-producing living strains and, for this latter, to its subsequent MC-extract of Microcystis aeruginosa. Toxicological effects on liver have been evaluated through the combined approach of histopathology and 'omics' (i.e. proteomics and metabolomics). All treatments induce sex-dependent effects at both cellular and molecular levels. Moreover, the modalities of exposure appear to induce differential responses as the direct exposure to the cyanobacterial strains induce more acute effects than the MC-extract treatment. Our histopathological observations indicate that both non-MC-producing and MC-producing strains induce cellular impairments. Both proteomic and metabolomic analyses exhibit various biological disruptions in the liver of females and males exposed to strain and extract treatments. These results support the hypothesis that M. aeruginosa is able to produce bioactive peptides, other than MCs, which can induce toxicological effects in fish liver. Moreover, they highlight the importance of considering cyanobacterial cells as a whole to assess the realistic environmental risk of cyanobacteria on fish.
Metabolic changes in Medaka fish induced by cyanobacterial exposures in mesocosms: an integrative approach combining proteomic and metabolomic analyses OPEN
Laboratoire Spectrométrie de masse biologique et protéomique - Benoît Sotton, Alain Paris, Séverine Le Manach, Alain Blond, Gérard Lacroix, Alexis Millot, Charlotte Duval, Hélène Huet, Qin Qiao, Sophie Labrut, Giovanni Chiappetta, Joelle Vinh, Arnaud Catherine & Benjamin Marie
Scientific Reports - 7 4051 - DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-04423-z - 2018
Cyanobacterial blooms pose serious threats to aquatic organisms and strongly impact the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Due to their ability to produce a wide range of potentially bioactive secondary metabolites, so called cyanotoxins, cyanobacteria have been extensively studied in the past decades. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the global response of hundreds of proteins and metabolites at a glance. In this study, we provide the first combined utilization of these methods targeted to identify the response of fish to bloom-forming cyanobacteria. Medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) were exposed for 96 hours either to a MC-producing or to a non-MC-producing strain of Microcystis aeruginosa and cellular, proteome and metabolome changes following exposure to cyanobacteria were characterized in the fish livers. The results suggest that a short-term exposure to cyanobacteria, producing or not MCs, induces sex-dependent molecular changes in medaka fish, without causing any cellular alterations. Globally, molecular entities involved in stress response, lipid metabolism and developmental processes exhibit the most contrasted changes following a cyanobacterial exposure. Moreover, it appears that proteomic and metabolomic analyses are useful tools to verify previous information and to additionally bring new horizons concerning molecular effects of cyanobacteria on fish.
Advances on non-invasive physically triggered nucleic acid delivery from nanocarriers
Laboratoire Synthèse Electrochimie Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques - Hai Doan Do, Brice Martin Couillaud, Bich-Thuy Doan, Yohann Corvis, Nathalie Mignet
Review - 138 3-17 - DOI: 10.1016/j.addr.2018.10.006 - 2018
Nucleic acids (NAs) have been considered as promising therapeutic agents for various types of diseases. However, their clinical applications still face many limitations due to their charge, high molecular weight, instability in biological environment and low levels of transfection. To overcome these drawbacks, therapeutic NAs should be carried in a stable nanocarrier, which can be viral or non-viral vectors, and released at specific target site. Various controllable gene release strategies are currently being evaluated with interesting results. Endogenous stimuli-responsive systems, for example pH-, redox reaction-, enzymatic-triggered approaches have been widely studied based on the physiological differences between pathological and normal tissues. Meanwhile, exogenous triggered release strategies require the use of externally non-invasive physical triggering signals such as light, heat, magnetic field and ultrasound. Compared to internal triggered strategies, external triggered gene release is time and site specifically controllable through active management of outside stimuli. The signal induces changes in the stability of the delivery system or some specific reactions which lead to endosomal escape and/or gene release. In the present review, the mechanisms and examples of exogenous triggered gene release approaches are detailed. Challenges and perspectives of such gene delivery systems are also discussed.
Clickable-Zwitterionic Copolymer Capped-Quantum Dots for in Vivo Fluorescence Tumor Imaging
Laboratoire Synthèse Electrochimie Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques - Laura Trapiella-Alfonso, Thomas Pons , Nicolas Lequeux , Ludovic Leleu, Juliette Grimaldi, Mariana Tasso, Edward Oujagir, Johanne Seguin, Fanny d'Orlyé, Christian Girard, Bich-Thuy Doan,
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces - 10-20 17107–17116 - - 2018
In the last decades, fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) have appeared as high-performance biological fluorescent nanoprobes and have been explored for a variety of biomedical optical imaging applications. However, many central challenges still exist concerning the control of the surface chemistry to ensure high biocompatibility, low toxicity, antifouling, and specific active targeting properties. Regarding in vivo applications, circulation time and clearance of the nanoprobe are also key parameters to control the design and characterization of new optical imaging agents. Herein, the complete design and characterization of a peptide-near-infrared-QD-based nanoprobe for biomedical optical imaging is presented from the synthesis of the QDs and the zwitterionic-azide copolymer ligand, enabling a bio-orthogonal coupling, till the final in vivo test through all the characterization steps. The developed nanoprobes show high fluorescence emission, controlled grafting rate, low toxicity, in vitro active specific targeting, and in vivo long circulating blood time. This is, to our knowledge, the first report characterizing the in vivo circulation kinetics and tumor accumulation of targeted zwitterionic QDs.
The enzyme-like catalytic activity of cerium oxide nanoparticles and its dependency on Ce3+ surface area concentration
Laboratoire Synthèse Electrochimie Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques - V. Baldim, F. Bedioui, N. Mignet, I. Margaillc and J.-F. Berret
Nanoscale - 10 6971-6980 - - 2018
Cerium oxide nanoparticles are known to catalyze the decomposition of reactive oxygen species such as the superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide. Herein, we examine the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) mimetic catalytic activities of nanoceria and demonstrate the existence of generic behaviors. For particles of sizes 4.5, 7.8, 23 and 28 nm, the SOD and CAT catalytic activities exhibit the characteristic shape of a Langmuir isotherm as a function of cerium concentration. The results show that the catalytic effects are enhanced for smaller particles and for the particles with the largest Ce3+ fraction. The SOD-like activity obtained from the different samples is found to superimpose on a single master curve using the Ce3+ surface area concentration as a new variable, indicating the existence of particle independent redox mechanisms. For the CAT assays, the adsorption of H2O2 molecules at the particle surface modulates the efficacy of the decomposition process and must be taken into account. We design an amperometry-based experiment to evaluate the H2O2 adsorption at nanoceria surfaces, leading to the renormalization of the particle specific area. Depending on the particle type the amount of adsorbed H2O2 molecules varies from 2 to 20 nm−2. The proposed scalings are predictive and allow the determination of the SOD and CAT catalytic properties of cerium oxide solely from physicochemical features.
Electrochemical Behavior of Stainless Steels for Sudomotor Dysfunction Applications
Laboratoire Synthèse Electrochimie Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques - Fethi Bedioui Abdulghani Ismail Sophie Griveau
ELSEVIER - 12 42-50 - DOI : 10.1016/j.coelec.2018.04.014 - 2018
Electrochemical detection of nitric oxide using different electrode materials and strategies exploded after the discovery of nitric oxide as important biological messenger. S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs), which result from interaction of NO with peptides and proteins, were shown to be important pools of NO that interfere in different physiological and pathological conditions. This lead to development of several decomposition methods to detect RSNOs electrochemically. This mini-review summarizes the beginning and the current investigations in electrochemical methods to detect NO and RSNOs. Indeed, it describes the latest trends to detect NO and RSNO using microfluidic technologies coupled to electrochemistry and discuss the future of NO and RSNOs detection.
Integrated microfluidic device for the separation, decomposition and detection of low molecular weight S-nitrosothiols
Laboratoire Synthèse Electrochimie Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques - Gerson F Duarte-Junior, Abdulghani Ismail, Sophie Griveau, Fanny d'Orlyé , José Alberto Fracassi da Silva, Wendell K T Coltro, Fethi Bedioui , Anne Varenne
Analyst - 144(1) 180-185 - doi: 10.1039/c8an00757h - 2018
S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) are very important biomolecules that play crucial roles in many physiological and physiopathological processes. They act as NO-donors and are candidates for future medicines. Their identification and quantitation are therefore important for biomedical applications. One, two or more RSNOs can then be combined to design a drug and therefore, the quantification of each is important to establish an acceptable quality control process. Till date, miniaturized devices have been used to detect RSNOs based on their total quantitation without a preceding separation step. This study reports on an original and integrated microdevice allowing for the successive electrokinetic separation of low molecular weight RSNOs, their decomposition under metal catalysis, and their quantitation by amperometric detection of the produced nitrite in the end-channel arrangement, leading to their quantitation in a single run. For this purpose, a commercial SU-8/Pyrex microfluidic system was coupled to a portable and wireless potentiostat. Different operating and running parameters were optimized to achieve the best analytical data, allowing for an LOD equal to 20 μM. The simultaneous separation of S-nitrosoglutathione and S-nitrosocysteine was successfully obtained within 75 s. The proposed methodology using SU-8/Pyrex microfluidic devices opens new possibilities to investigate future drug candidates for NO-donors.
In vitro distinction between proinflammatory and antiinflammatory macrophages with gadolinium-liposomes and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles at 3.0T
Laboratoire Synthèse Electrochimie Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques - Wassef Khaled, Joao Piraquive , Benjamin Leporq , Jing Hong Wan , Simon A Lambert 1, Nathalie Mignet , Bich-Thuy Doan , Sophie Lotersztajn , Philippe Garteiser , Bernard E Van Beers
J Magn Reson Imaging - 49(4) 1166-1173 - doi: 10.1002/jmri.26331 - 2018
Background: Inflammation involves a heterogeneous macrophage population, for which there is no readily available MR assessment method.

Purpose: To assess the feasibility of distinguishing proinflammatory M1 and antiinflammatory M2 macrophages at MRI enhanced with gadolinium liposomes or ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles.

Study type: In vitro.

Specimen: We employed cultured RAW macrophages. M0 macrophages were polarized with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interleukin-4 (IL-4), resulting in M1 or M2 macrophages. The macrophages were incubated with gadolinium (±rhodamine) liposomes or iron oxide particles and cell pellets were prepared for MRI.

Field strength/sequence: Transverse relaxation rates and quantitative susceptibility were obtained at 3.0T with multiecho turbo spin echo and spoiled gradient echo sequences.

Assessment: MRI results were compared with confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and expression of endocytosis, M1 and M2 genes.

Statistical tests: Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed.

Results: Higher transverse relaxation rates and susceptibility were observed in M1 than in M2 and M0 macrophages (P < 0.01 both with liposomes and USPIO) and significantly different susceptibility in M2 and M0 macrophages (P < 0.01 both with liposomes and USPIO). These MRI results were confirmed at confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. LPS macrophages displayed M1 gene expression, whereas IL-4 macrophages showed M2 polarization and lower endocytosis gene expression rates.

Data conclusion: These in vitro results show that it is feasible to distinguish between proinflammatory M1 and antiinflammatory M2 macrophages according to their level of contrast agent uptake at MRI.

Level of evidence: 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;49:1166-1173.

Keywords: gadolinium liposomes; macrophage imaging; macrophage phagocytosis; magnetic resonance imaging of inflammation; quantitative susceptibility mapping; ultrasmall iron oxide particles.
In Vivo Evaluation of Magnetic Targeting in Mice Colon Tumors with Ultra-Magnetic Liposomes Monitored by MRI
Laboratoire Synthèse Electrochimie Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques - Thébault C, Ramniceanu G, Michel A, Beauvineau C, Girard C, Seguin J, Mignet N, Ménager C, Doan BT
Molecular Imaging and Biology - 21(2) 269-278 - DOI: 10.1007/s11307-018-1238-3 - 2018
PURPOSE:The development of theranostic nanocarriers as an innovative therapy against cancer has been improved by targeting properties in order to optimize the drug delivery to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the magnetic targeting (MT) efficiency of ultra-magnetic liposomes (UML) into CT26 murine colon tumor by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PROCEDURES:Dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI was applied to assess the bloodstream circulation time. A novel semi-quantitative method called %I0.25, based on the intensity distribution in T2*-weighted MRI images was developed to compare the accumulation of T2 contrast agent in tumors with or without MT. To evaluate the efficiency of magnetic targeting, the percentage of pixels under the intensity value I0.25 (I0.25 = 0.25(Imax - Imin)) was calculated on the intensity distribution histogram. RESULTS:This innovative method of processing MRI images showed the MT efficiency by a %I0.25 that was significantly higher in tumors using MT compared to passive accumulation, from 15.3 to 28.6 %. This methodology was validated by ex vivo methods with an iron concentration that is 3-fold higher in tumors using MT. CONCLUSIONS:We have developed a method that allows a semi-quantitative evaluation of targeting efficiency in tumors, which could be applied to different T2 contrast agents.
Electrochemical behavior of electrode materials (nickel and stainless steels) for sudomotor dysfunction applications : a review
Laboratoire Synthèse Electrochimie Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques - Fethi Bedioui Virginie Lair Sophie Griveau Armelle Ringuedé José Zagal Michel Cassir
Chimie analytique - - DOI : 10.1002/elan.201800439 - 2018
This is an overview of the electrochemical characterization of nickel and stainless steel as electrodes in medical devices for the early diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy that originates from type-2 diabetes or cystic fibrosis. The electrical current responses obtained during the clinical tests are related to the amount of chloride present on the sweat. Stainless steel electrodes are now used to replace nickel because this later not only presents problems with chloride sensitivity but its contact with skin can cause possible allergic reactions for some patients. For the above reasons, several types of stainless steels were studied. It was shown that some of them perform well and have lower costs than Ni electrodes. We discuss the state of the art of the electrochemical studies conducted with nickel and steels under physiological or biomimetic conditions and discuss the advantages of a particular steel over the others depending on the conditions, especially chloride concentration.
AGuIX ® from bench to bedside-Transfer of an ultrasmall theranostic gadolinium-based nanoparticle to clinical medicine
Laboratoire Synthèse Electrochimie Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques - François Lux, Vu Long Tran, Eloïse Thomas, Sandrine Dufort , Fabien Rossetti , Matteo Martini, Charles Truillet, Tristan Doussineau, Guillaume Bort, Franck Denat, Frédéric Boschetti, Goran Angelovski, Alexandre Detappe, Yannic
Br J Radiol - 92(1093) 20180365 - doi: 10.1259/bjr.20180365 - 2018
AGuIX® are sub-5 nm nanoparticles made of a polysiloxane matrix and gadolinium chelates. This nanoparticle has been recently accepted in clinical trials in association with radiotherapy. This review will summarize the principal preclinical results that have led to first in man administration. No evidence of toxicity has been observed during regulatory toxicity tests on two animal species (rodents and monkeys). Biodistributions on different animal models have shown passive uptake in tumours due to enhanced permeability and retention effect combined with renal elimination of the nanoparticles after intravenous administration. High radiosensitizing effect has been observed with different types of irradiations in vitro and in vivo on a large number of cancer types (brain, lung, melanoma, head and neck…). The review concludes with the second generation of AGuIX nanoparticles and the first preliminary results on human.


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