Université PSL



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Directional persistence of chemotactic bacteria in a traveling concentration wave
Saragosti J., Calvez V., Bournaveas N., Perthame B., Buguin A., Silberzan P.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA - 108 :16235 - DOI:10.1073/pnas.1101996108 - 2011
Chemotactic bacteria are known to collectively migrate towards sources of attractants. In confined convectionless geometries, concentration “waves” of swimming Escherichia coli can form and propagate through a self-organized process involving hundreds of thousands of these microorganisms. These waves are observed in particular in microcapillaries or microchannels; they result from the interaction between individual chemotactic bacteria and the macroscopic chemical gradients dynamically generated by the migrating population. By studying individual trajectories within the propagating wave, we show that, not only the mean run length is longer in the direction of propagation, but also that the directional persistence is larger compared to the opposite direction. This modulation of the reorientations significantly improves the efficiency of the collective migration. Moreover, these two quantities are spatially modulated along the concentration profile. We recover quantitatively these microscopic and macroscopic observations with a dedicated kinetic model.
Integrated and Diffusion-Based Micro-Injectors for Open Access Cell Assays
X. Li, L. Liu, L. Wang, K. Kamei, Q. H. Yuan, F. Zhang, J. Shi, A. Kusumi, M. Xie, Z. J. Zhao and Y. Chen
Lab. Chip - 11 :2612-7 - DOI:10.1039/c1lc20258h - 2011
Currently, most microfluidic devices are fabricated with embedded micro-channels and other elements in a close form with outward connections. Although much functionality has been demonstrated and a large number of applications have been developed, they are not easy for routine operation in biology laboratories where most in vitro cell processing still relies on the use of culture dishes, glass slides, multi-well plates, tubes, pipettes, etc. We report here an open access device which consists of an array of isolated micro-channels plated on a large culture surface, each of them having tiny nozzles for localized drug delivery. In a diffusion dominant regime, steady gradients of molecule concentration could be obtained and varied by changing the flow rate inside the micro-channels. As assay examples, cell staining and drug-induced cell apoptosis were demonstrated, showing fast cell responses in close proximity of the nozzles.
Photoreversible Fragmentation of a Liquid Interface for Micro-Droplet Generation by Light Actuation
A. Diguet, H. Li, N. Queyriaux, Y. Chen and D. Baigl
Lab. Chip - 11 :2666-9 - DOI:10.1039/c1lc20328b - 2011
We describe a method to induce by light a reversible switch from a continuous two-phase laminar flow to a droplet generating regime, in microfluidic devices with a usual water-in-oil flow focusing geometry. It consists in adding a photosensitive surfactant to the aqueous phase to modulate using light the interfacial energy between flowing liquids and the microfluidic substrate. We show that UV irradiation induces liquid fragmentation into monodisperse water microdroplets and that many cycles of reversible and rapid switches (<2 s) between continuous laminar flows and stable droplet regimes can be realized. By spatially controlling the application of the light stimulus, we also demonstrate the first spatially resolved remote induction of droplet generation.
Fluidized bed plasma for pre-treatment of Co-ferrierite catalysts: An approach to NOx abatement
R. Bartolomeu, M. Foix, A. Fernandes, M. Tatoulian, M.F. Ribeiro, C. Henriques, P. Da Costa
CATALYSIS TODAY - 176(1) :234-8 - DOI:10.1016/j.cattod.2010.12.051 - 2011
Replacement of calcination procedures used during catalyst preparation, by a plasma treatment, was studied over a Co-ferrierite (Co-FER) catalyst. The catalyst was tested in the NOx selective catalytic reduction reaction. A combination of UV–Vis spectroscopy and TG analysis revealed the presence of ammonium ions on the untreated and plasma Co-FER samples but not on the calcined one. Therefore, it can be concluded that the plasma treatment was not able to replace the thermal calcination step. The evaluation of catalyst behaviour was performed both under temperature programmed surface reaction (TPSR) and under steady-state conditions at different temperatures. NO oxidation tests showed that, during TPSR runs, calcined catalyst produces more NO2 than plasma catalyst. NOx consumption during TPSR of plasma catalyst confirms that precursors used on the ion-exchange procedure are still present on the catalyst even after the plasma treatment, reacting with NO to produce R-NOx, N2O and N2. Concerning deNOx tests using ethanol as reducing agent, TPSR tests showed higher NOx conversions over untreated and plasma catalysts due to the presence of ammonium and acetate precursors on these catalysts. Untreated, plasma and calcined catalysts present the same NOx and COx conversions in isothermal tests.
Deposition of Cobalt Oxide thin films by PECVD for catalysis application
C. Guyon, A. Barkallah, F. Rousseau, K. Giffard, D. Morvan, M. Tatoulian
Surface & Coatings Technology - 206(7) :1673-9 - DOI:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.09.060 - 2011
Plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) was used to prepare thin films of cobalt oxide. Cobalt oxide-based (CoO and Co3O4) catalysts were chosen due to their efficiency in mineralisation of organic pollutants achieved by catalytic ozonation. In this work, two types of PECVD processes were used for the production of cobalt oxide thin films. In the first one, a solution of nitrate salt of cobalt was sprayed into a RF low pressure plasma discharge (40 MHz, 600 Pa, 200 W) to obtain CoxOy layers. In the second MOPECVD (metal organic plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition) process, cobalt oxide thin films were deposited using a capacitive coupled external electrodes RF plasma reactor (13.56 MHz, 100 Pa, 200 W) with cobalt carbonyl Co2(CO)8 dissolved in hexene as precursor sprayed in a gas carrier (argon and oxygen). In the case of coatings produced from a solution of cobalt nitrate salt, a layer of 1 µm of Co3O4 in crystalline form was obtained after annealing. Considering the thin films obtained from cobalt carbonyl precursor, analyses confirmed the presence of cobalt oxide in a polymeric layer on the surface of the substrate. XRD investigation showed the presence of a crystalline phase of Co3O4 (crystallite size of about 40 nm).
Silica sputtering as a novel collective stationary phase deposition for microelectromechanical system gas chromatography column: Feasibility and first separation
J. Vial, D. Thiébaut, F. Marty, P. Guibal, R. Haudebourg, K. Nachef, K. Danaie, B. Bourlon
J. Chrom. A - 1218(21) :3262-66 - DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2010.12.035 - 2011
Since the late 1970s, approaches have been proposed to replace conventional gas chromatography apparatus with silicon-based microfabricated separation systems. Performances are expected to be improved with miniaturization owing to the reduction of diffusion distances and better thermal management. However, one of the main challenges consists in the collective and reproducible fabrication of efficient microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gas chromatography (GC) columns. Indeed, usual coating processes or classical packing with particulate matters are not compatible with the requirements of collective MEMS production in clean room facilities. A new strategy based on the rerouting of conventional microfabrication techniques and widely used in electronics for metals and dielectrics deposition is presented. The originality lies in the sputtering techniques employed for the deposition of the stationary phase. The potential of these novel sputtered stationary phases is demonstrated with silica sputtering applied to the separation of light hydrocarbons and natural gases. If kinetic characteristics of the sputtered open tubular columns were acceptable with 2500 theoretical plates per meter, the limited retention and resolution of light hydrocarbons led us to consider semipacked sputtered columns with rectangular pillars allowing also significant reduction of typical diffusion distances. In that case separations were greatly improved because retention increased and efficiency was close to 5000 theoretical plates per meter.
Selective extraction of nitroaromatic explosives by using molecularly imprinted silica sorbents
S. Lordel, F. Chapuis-Hugon, V. Eudes, V. Pichon
Anal. Bioanal. Chem - 399(1) :449-58 - DOI:10.1007/s00216-010-4346-8 - 2011
Two molecularly imprinted silicas (MISs) were synthesized and used as selective sorbents for the extraction of nitroaromatic explosives in post-blast samples. The synthesis of the MISs was carried out with phenyltrimethoxysilane as monomer, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) as template and triethoxysilane as cross-linker by a sol-gel approach in two molar ratios: 1/4/20 and 1/4/30 (template/monomer/cross-linker). Non-imprinted silica sorbents were also prepared following the same procedures without introducing the template. An optimized procedure dedicated to the selective treatment of aqueous samples was developed for both MISs for the simultaneous extraction of the template and other nitroaromatic compounds commonly used as explosives. The capacity of the MISs was measured by the extraction of increasing amounts of 2,4-DNT in pure water and is higher than 3.2 mg/g of sorbent for each MIS. For the first time, four nitroaromatic compounds were selectively extracted and determined simultaneously with extraction recoveries higher than 79%. The potential of these sorbents was then highlighted by their use for the clean-up of post-blast samples (motor oil, post-mortem blood, calcined fragments, etc.). The results were compared to those obtained using a conventional sorbent, thus demonstrating the interest of the use of these MISs as selective sorbents.
Surface Reactivity from Electrochemical Lithography: Illustration in the Steady-State Reductive Etching of Perfluorinated Surfaces
H. Hazimeh, S. Nunige, R. Cornut, C. Lefrou, C. Combellas, F. Kanoufi
Anal. Chem. - 83(15) :6106-13 - DOI:10.1021/ac201255c - 2011
The scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) in the lithographic mode is used to assess quantitatively, from both theoretical and experimental points of view, the kinetics of irreversible transformation of electroactive molecular moieties immobilized on a surface as self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The SECM tip allows the generation of an etchant that transforms the surface locally and irreversibly. The resulting surface patterning is detectable by different surface analyses. The quantification of the surface transformation kinetics is deduced from the evolution of the pattern dimensions with the etching time. The special case of slow etching kinetics is presented; it is predicted that the pattern evolution follows the expansion of the etchant at the substrate surface. The case of a chemically unstable etchant is considered. The model is then tested by inspecting the slow reductive patterning of a perfluorinated SAM. Good agreement is found with different independent SECM interrogation modes, depending on the insulating or conducting nature of the covered substrate. The surface transformation measurements are also compared to the reduction of solutions of perfluoroalkanes. The three-orders-of-magnitude-slower electron transfer observed at the immobilized molecules likely describes the large reorganization associated with the generation of a perfluoroalkyl-centered radical anion.
Feasibility of ultra high performance supercritical neat carbon dioxide. chromatography at conventional pressures
C. Sarazin, D. Thiebaut, P. Sassiat,J. Vial
J. Sep. Sci. - 34(19) :2773-8 - DOI:10.1002/jssc.201100332 - 2011
The implementation of columns packed with sub-2 µm particles in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is described using neat carbon dioxide as the mobile phase. A conventional supercritical fluid chromatograph was slightly modified to reduce extra column band broadening. Performances of a column packed with 1.8 µm C18-bonded silica particles in SFC using neat carbon dioxide as the mobile phase were compared with results obtained in ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) using a dedicated chromatograph. As expected and usual in SFC, higher linear velocities than in UHPLC must be applied in order to reach optimal efficiency owing to higher diffusion coefficient of solutes in the mobile phase; similar numbers of theoretical plates were obtained with both techniques. Very fast separations of hydrocarbons are presented using two different alkyl-bonded silica columns.
Differential RNA-binding activity of the hnRNP G protein correlated with the sex genotype in the amphibian oocyte
Kanhoush, R; Praseuth, D; Perrin, C; Chardard, D; Vinh, J; Penrad-Mobayed, M.
Nucleic Acids Res. - 39(10) :4109-21 - DOI:10.1093/nar/gkq1315 - 2011
A proteomic approach has enabled the identification of an orthologue of the splicing factor hnRNP G in the amphibians Xenopus tropicalis, Ambystoma mexicanum, Notophthalmus viridescens and Pleurodeles walt, which shows a specific RNA-binding affinity similar to that of the human hnRN G protein. Three isoforms of this protein with a differential binding affinity for a specific RNA probe were identified in the P. walt oocyte. In situ hybridization to lampbrush chromosomes of P. waltl revealed the presence of a family of hnRNP G genes, which were mapped on the Z and W chromosomes and one autosome. This indicates that the isoforms identified in this study are possibly encoded by a gene family linked to the evolution of sex chromosomes similarly to the hnRNP G/RBMX gene family in mammals.

347 publications.