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Revealing the competition between peeled DNA, melting bubbles, and S-DNA during DNA overstretching using fluorescence microscopy
Laboratoire Nanobiophysiques - Graeme A. Kinga, Peter Grossa, Ulrich Bockelmannb, Mauro Modestic, Gijs J. L. Wuitea, and Erwin J. G. Petermana
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA - vol.110 (n°10) 3859–64 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1213676110 - 2013
Mechanical stress plays a key role in many genomic processes, such as DNA replication and transcription. The ability to predict the response of double-stranded (ds) DNA to tension is a cornerstone of understanding DNA mechanics. It is widely appreciated that torsionally relaxed dsDNA exhibits a structural transition at forces of ∼65 pN, known as overstretching, whereby the contour length of the molecule increases by ∼70%. Despite extensive investigation, the structural changes occurring in DNA during overstretching are still generating considerable debate. Three mechanisms have been proposed to account for the increase in DNA contour length during overstretching: strand unpeeling, localized base-pair breaking (yielding melting bubbles), and formation of S-DNA (strand unwinding, while base pairing is maintained). Here we show, using a combination of fluorescence microscopy and optical tweezers, that all three structures can exist, uniting the often contradictory dogmas of DNA overstretching. We visualize and distinguish strand unpeeling and melting-bubble formation using an appropriate combination of fluorescently labeled proteins, whereas remaining B-form DNA is accounted for by using specific fluorescent molecular markers. Regions of S-DNA are associated with domains where fluorescent probes do not bind. We demonstrate that the balance between the three structures of overstretched DNA is governed by both DNA topology and local DNA stability. These findings enhance our knowledge of DNA mechanics and stability, which are of fundamental importance to understanding how proteins modify the physical state of DNA.
RecG and UvsW catalyse robust DNA rewinding critical for stalled DNA replication fork rescue
Laboratoire Physique des biomolécules - Maria Manosas, Senthil K. Perumal, Piero R. Bianco, Felix Ritort, Stephen J. Benkovic and Vincent Croquette
Nature Communications - -4 2368 - DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3368 - 2013
Helicases that both unwind and rewind DNA have central roles in DNA repair and genetic recombination. In contrast to unwinding, DNA rewinding by helicases has proved difficult to characterize biochemically because of its thermodynamically downhill nature. Here we use single-molecule assays to mechanically destabilize a DNA molecule and follow, in real time, unwinding and rewinding by two DNA repair helicases, bacteriophage T4 UvsW and Escherichia coli RecG. We find that both enzymes are robust rewinding enzymes, which can work against opposing forces as large as 35 pN, revealing their active character. The generation of work during the rewinding reaction allows them to couple rewinding to DNA unwinding and/or protein displacement reactions central to the rescue of stalled DNA replication forks. The overall results support a general mechanism for monomeric rewinding enzymes.
Cell–cell contacts confine public goods diffusion inside Pseudomonas aeruginosa clonal microcolonies
Laboratoire Physique des biomolécules - Thomas Julou, Thierry Mora, Laurent Guillon, Vincent Croquette, Isabelle J. Schal, David Bensimon, and Nicolas Desprat
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA - vol.110 (n°31) 12577–82 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1301428110 - 2013
he maintenance of cooperation in populations where public goods are equally accessible to all but inflict a fitness cost on individual producers is a long-standing puzzle of evolutionary biology. An example of such a scenario is the secretion of siderophores by bacteria into their environment to fetch soluble iron. In a planktonic culture, these molecules diffuse rapidly, such that the same concentration is experienced by all bacteria. However, on solid substrates, bacteria form dense and packed colonies that may alter the diffusion dynamics through cell–cell contact interactions. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa microcolonies growing on solid substrate, we found that the concentration of pyoverdine, a secreted iron chelator, is heterogeneous, with a maximum at the center of the colony. We quantitatively explain the formation of this gradient by local exchange between contacting cells rather than by global diffusion of pyoverdine. In addition, we show that this local trafficking modulates the growth rate of individual cells. Taken together, these data provide a physical basis that explains the stability of public goods production in packed colonies.
Surface functionalization of COC microfluidic materials by plasma and click chemistry processes
Laboratoire Procédés - Plasmas - Microsystèmes - Y. Ladner, F. D’orlye, C. Perrard, B. Da Silva, C. Guyon, M. Tatoulian, S. Griveau, F. Bedioui & A. Varenne
Plasma Process - 10(11) :959-69 - DOI:10.1002/ppap.201300066 - 2013
A robust method for COC surfaces functionalization was developed for the first time by plasma polymerization. 1-bromopropane in the vapor phase allowed the formation of a brominated deposit on COC surfaces, which stability, homogeneity and chemical nature were evaluated for different experimental conditions. The analysis of vapor phase was achieved by mass spectrometry to control brominated precursor fragmentation. Following nucleophilic exchange in the presence of NaN3 to convert the brominated surface to azide-bearing surface, these modified COC were further functionalized with a fluorescent alkyne, via the copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition reaction, i.e. “click” reaction. Surface modifications were characterized by water contact angle measurement, ellipsometry, electrochemical microscopy, XPS, IR and fluorescence microscopy. This new process was proved to be efficient and stable in time up to 7 days.
Catkin liked nano-Co3O4 catalyst built-in organic microreactor by PEMOCVD method for trace CO oxidation at room temperature
Laboratoire Procédés - Plasmas - Microsystèmes - G. L. Chen,C. Guyon,Z. X. Zhang,B. Da Silva,P. Da Costa,S. Ognier,D. Bonn,M. Tatoulian
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics - 16(1-2) :141-148 - DOI:10.10.1007/s10404-013-1220-y - 2013
In this paper, tricobalt tetraoxide (Co3O4) catalyst was coated on the polydimethylsiloxane microchannel by the plasma-enhanced metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technology. The obtained Co3O4 film was characterized by SEM, XRD, XPS, and TEM, and the results show that the as-deposited Co3O4 film was initially composed of many cauliflowers-shaped microclusters. Also, the microcauliflower was transformed from an amorphous phase to a crystal phase when the Co3O4 film was treated by Ar and O2 plasma for more than 20 min, and the crystal lattice line occurred on the surface of nano-sized-Co3O4 particles. Meanwhile, the interface of Co3O4 particles with diameter between 3 and 12 nm became obvious and some nano-catkin structures were also formed on the Co3O4 film. The ratio of Co3+/Co2+ in the spinel-type Co3O4 was nearly 2, and the nano-particles predominantly expose their {311}, {111}, and {220} planes. These morphologies and structure characteristics were found to be ideal for increasing the catalytic activity efficiency of Co3O4 for CO oxidation, and the catalytic stability of Co3O4 coated on the organic microreactor lasted nearly 85 h for trace CO oxidation at room temperature.
The different structure characteristics of nanosized Co3O 4 film crystallized by the annealing and plasma techniques
Laboratoire Procédés - Plasmas - Microsystèmes - G.L. Chen, C. Guyon, Z.X., Zhang, S. Ognier, J. Beem, M.Tatoulian
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics - 107 :1111 – 114 - DOI:10.1016/j.matlet.2013.05.071 - 2013
In this study, we deposited nano-Co3O4 film on silicon substrate using plasma-enhanced metal—organic chemical vapor deposition (PEMOCVD), and the structure difference of Co3O4 crystallized by the annealing and the Ar/O2 plasma techniques were explored by SEM, TEM, XRD, and XPS. Compared to the net morphology of Co3O4 film treated with high calcinations temperature, the cauliflowers-shaped micro-clusters were changed to nano-catkin when the sample was treated with Ar and O2 plasma for 40 min. Additionally, both samples (annealed and plasma-treated) showed the formation of both the {311} and {220} planes. The surface richness of active Co3+ sites on the exposed {220} plane indicated that the as-deposited nano-Co3O4 films have potential catalytic properties for CO and hydrocarbon oxidation.
Cyclic Olefin Copolymer Plasma millireactors
Laboratoire Procédés - Plasmas - Microsystèmes - Schelcher G, Guyon C, Ognier S, Cavadias S, Martinez E, Taniga V, Malaquin L, Tabeling P and Tatoulian M
Lab. Chip - 14(16) 3037-42 - DOI: 10.1039/c4lc00423j - 2013
The novelty of this paper lies in the development of a multistep process for the manufacturing of plasma millireactors operating at atmospheric pressure. The fabrication process relies on the integration of metallic electrodes over a cyclic olefin copolymer chip by a combination of photopatterning and sputtering. The developed plasma millireactors were successfully tested by creating air discharges in the gas volume of the millichannel. A sputtered silica layer was deposited on the channel walls to provide a barrier between the plasma and the polymer in order to prevent the alteration of polymer surfaces during the plasma treatment. Interest in this process of employing plasma millireactor as a high reactive environment is demonstrated here by the degradation of a volatile organic compound (acetaldehyde) in ambient air. In this miniaturized device, we obtained a high acetaldehyde conversion (98%) for a specific input energy lower than 200 J L(-1).
Abnormal recruitment of extracellular matrix proteins by excess Notch3ECD: a new pathomechanism in CADASIL
Laboratoire Spectrométrie de masse biologique et protéomique - Monet-Leprêtre M, Haddad I, Baron-Menguy C, Fouillot-Panchal M, Riani M, Domenga-Denier V, Dussaule C, Cognat E, Vinh J and Joutel A
Brain Oxford - (Pt 6) 1830-45 - DOI: 10.1093/brain/awt092 - 2013
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, or CADASIL, one of the most common inherited small vessel diseases of the brain, is characterized by a progressive loss of vascular smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix accumulation. The disease is caused by highly stereotyped mutations within the extracellular domain of the NOTCH3 receptor (Notch3(ECD)) that result in an odd number of cysteine residues. While CADASIL-associated NOTCH3 mutations differentially affect NOTCH3 receptor function and activity, they all are associated with early accumulation of Notch3(ECD)-containing aggregates in small vessels. We still lack mechanistic explanation to link NOTCH3 mutations with small vessel pathology. Herein, we hypothesized that excess Notch3(ECD) could recruit and sequester functionally important proteins within small vessels of the brain. We performed biochemical, nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and immunohistochemical analyses, using cerebral and arterial tissue derived from patients with CADASIL and mouse models of CADASIL that exhibit vascular lesions in the end- and early-stage of the disease, respectively. Biochemical fractionation of brain and artery samples demonstrated that mutant Notch3(ECD) accumulates in disulphide cross-linked detergent-insoluble aggregates in mice and patients with CADASIL. Further proteomic and immunohistochemical analyses identified two functionally important extracellular matrix proteins, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3) and vitronectin (VTN) that are sequestered into Notch3(ECD)-containing aggregates. Using cultured cells, we show that increased levels or aggregation of Notch3 enhances the formation of Notch3(ECD)-TIMP3 complex, promoting TIMP3 recruitment and accumulation. In turn, TIMP3 promotes complex formation including NOTCH3 and VTN. In vivo, brain vessels from mice and patients with CADASIL exhibit elevated levels of both insoluble cross-linked and soluble TIMP3 species. Moreover, reverse zymography assays show a significant elevation of TIMP3 activity in the brain vessels from mice and patients with CADASIL. Collectively, our findings lend support to a Notch3(ECD) cascade hypothesis in CADASIL disease pathology, which posits that aggregation/accumulation of Notch3(ECD) in the brain vessels is a central event, promoting the abnormal recruitment of functionally important extracellular matrix proteins that may ultimately cause multifactorial toxicity. Specifically, our results suggest a dysregulation of TIMP3 activity, which could contribute to mutant Notch3(ECD) toxicity by impairing extracellular matrix homeostasis in small vessels.
Landscape of protein–protein interactions in Drosophila immune deficiency signaling during bacterial challenge
Laboratoire Spectrométrie de masse biologique et protéomique - Hidehiro Fukuyamaa, Yann Verdierb, Yongsheng Guana, Chieko Makino-Okamuraa, Victoria Shilovaa, Xi Liua, E. Maksouda, J. Matsubayashia, I. Haddadb, K. Spirohne, K. Onof, C. Hetruc, J. Rossierb, Trey Idekerf, M. Boutrose, Joëlle Vinh and Jules A. Hoffmann
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA - vol.110(n°26) 10717–22 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1304380110 - 2013
The Drosophila defense against pathogens largely relies on the activation of two signaling pathways: immune deficiency (IMD) and Toll. The IMD pathway is triggered mainly by Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the Toll pathway responds predominantly to Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The activation of these pathways leads to the rapid induction of numerous NF-κB–induced immune response genes, including antimicrobial peptide genes. The IMD pathway shows significant similarities with the TNF receptor pathway. Recent evidence indicates that the IMD pathway is also activated in response to various noninfectious stimuli (i.e., inflammatory-like reactions). To gain a better understanding of the molecular machinery underlying the pleiotropic functions of this pathway, we first performed a comprehensive proteomics analysis to identify the proteins interacting with the 11 canonical members of the pathway initially identified by genetic studies. We identified 369 interacting proteins (corresponding to 291 genes) in heat-killed Escherichia coli-stimulated Drosophila S2 cells, 92% of which have human orthologs. A comparative analysis of gene ontology from fly or human gene annotation databases points to four significant common categories: (i) the NuA4, nucleosome acetyltransferase of H4, histone acetyltransferase complex, (ii) the switching defective/sucrose nonfermenting-type chromatin remodeling complex, (iii) transcription coactivator activity, and (iv) translation factor activity. Here we demonstrate that sumoylation of the IκB kinase homolog immune response-deficient 5 plays an important role in the induction of antimicrobial peptide genes through a highly conserved sumoylation consensus site during bacterial challenge. Taken together, the proteomics data presented here provide a unique avenue for a comparative functional analysis of proteins involved in innate immune reactions in flies and mammals.
Aptamer-conjugated nanoparticles: Preservation of targeting functionality demonstrated by microchip electrophoresis in frontal mode
Laboratoire Synthèse Electrochimie Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques - M. Girardot, F. d'Orlye, S. Descroix, A. Varenne.
Analytical Biochemistry - 435 150-152 - PMID:23333271 - 2013
Aptamer-conjugated nanoparticles (Apt-NPs) are increasingly being developed for biomedical purposes and especially for diagnosis and therapy. However, there is no quantitative study of the targeting functionality of such grafted aptamers compared with free aptamers. Thus, we report the first determination of binding parameters for Apt-NP/target complexes, thanks to a continuous frontal analysis in a microchip electrophoresis format (named FACMCE), based on a methodology previously developed by our group. As a model system, the targeting ability of a lysozyme-binding aptamer conjugated to fluorescent maghemite nanoparticles was evaluated and showed evidence that the conjugation does not alter the affinity of this aptamer.
Electrokinetic characterization of superparamagnetic nanoparticle–aptamer conjugates: design of new highly specific probes for miniaturized molecular diagnostics
Laboratoire Synthèse Electrochimie Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques - M. Girardot, F. d'Orlye, A. Varenne
Anal. Bioanal. Chem - 406(4) :1089-98 - DOI:10.1007/s00216-013-7265-7 - 2013
With the view of designing new nanoparticle (NP)-aptamer conjugates and proving their suitability as biorecognition tools for miniaturized molecular diagnostics, new maghemite-silica core-shell NP-aptamer conjugates were characterized for the first time in terms of grafting rate and colloidal stability under electrophoretic conditions using capillary electrophoresis. After the grafting rate (on the order of six to 50) of the lysozyme-binding aptamer had been estimated, the electrophoretic stability and peak dispersion of the resulting oligonucleotide-NP conjugates were estimated so as to determine the optimal separation conditions in terms of buffer pH, ionic strength and nature, as well as temperature and electric field strength. The effective surface charge density of the NPs was close to zero for pH lower than 5, which led to some aggregation. The NPs were stable in the pH range from 5 to 9, and an increase in electrophoretic mobility was evidenced with increasing pH. Colloidal stability was preserved at physiological pH for both non-grafted NPs and grafted NPs in the 10-100 mM ionic strength range and in the 15-60 °C temperature range. A strong influence of the nature of the buffer counterion on NP electrophoretic mobility and peak dispersion was evidenced, thus indicating some interactions between buffer components and NP-aptamer conjugates. Whereas an electric field effect (50-900 V cm(-1)) on NP electrophoretic mobility was evidenced, probably linked to counterion dissociation, temperature seems to have an appreciable effect on the zeta potential and aptamer configuration as well. This information is crucial for estimating the potentialities of such biorecognition tools in electrophoretic systems.
Red blood celles decorated with functionalized core-shell magnetic nanoparticles : elucidation of the adsorption mechanism
Laboratoire Synthèse Electrochimie Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques - T. D. Mai, F. D’Orlyé, C. Menager, A. Varenne, M. Siaugue
Chem. Comm. - 49(47) :5393-5 - DOI:10.1039/c3cc41513a. - 2013
The decoration of red blood cells (RBCs) with aminated and carboxylated core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (CSMNs) was studied and elucidated. It was demonstrated that only aminated CSMNs could decorate the RBCs and their adsorption interaction is mainly ruled by electrostatic attraction between the positively charged amino groups on CSMNs and the abundant sialic acid groups on the outer surface of RBCs.
Surface functionalization of COC microfluidic materials by plasma and click chemistry processes
Laboratoire Synthèse Electrochimie Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques - Y. Ladner, F. D’orlye, C. Perrard, B. Da Silva, C. Guyon, M. Tatoulian, S. Griveau, F. Bedioui & A. Varenne
Plasma Process - 10(11) :959-69 - DOI:10.1002/ppap.201300066 - 2013
A robust method for COC surfaces functionalization was developed for the first time by plasma polymerization. 1-bromopropane in the vapor phase allowed the formation of a brominated deposit on COC surfaces, which stability, homogeneity and chemical nature were evaluated for different experimental conditions. The analysis of vapor phase was achieved by mass spectrometry to control brominated precursor fragmentation. Following nucleophilic exchange in the presence of NaN3 to convert the brominated surface to azide-bearing surface, these modified COC were further functionalized with a fluorescent alkyne, via the copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition reaction, i.e. “click” reaction. Surface modifications were characterized by water contact angle measurement, ellipsometry, electrochemical microscopy, XPS, IR and fluorescence microscopy. This new process was proved to be efficient and stable in time up to 7 days.
Horseradish peroxidase nanopatterned electrodes by click chemistry: Application to the electrochemical detection of paracetamol
Laboratoire Synthèse Electrochimie Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques - D. Quinton, A. Maringa, S. Griveau, T. Nyokong & F. Bedioui
Electrochemistry Communications - 31 :112-5 - - 2013
Electrochemical DNA-biosensors : two-electrode set up well adapted for miniaturized devices
Laboratoire Synthèse Electrochimie Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques - M. Lazerges, V. T. Tal, P. Bigey, D. Scherman & F. Bedioui
Sensors & Actuators - B 182 :510-513 - DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2013.02.098 - 2013
The proof of concept of a DNA-biosensor based on a two-electrode electrochemical setup and using a microelectrode as working electrode, well adapted for detection in microliter samples and miniaturization, is presented herein. A 23-base DNA-probe self-assembled monolayer was first formed onto a 50 μm-diameter gold surface. The microelectrode extremity was then immersed in a 50 μL DNA-target solution drop itself deposited onto a 2 mm-diameter gold counter electrode. Transduction occurs via long-range electron transfer, which is enhanced subsequently to hybridization, due to DNA-base π-stacking. Single mismatch detection of this first prototype was matched at room temperature in the nanomolar range without any optimization.
A completely in vitro ultrahigh-throughput droplet-based microfluidic screening system for protein engineering and directed evolution
Laboratoire Biochimie - Fallah-Araghi, J.-C. Baret, M. Ryckelynck, and A.D. Griffiths
Lab. Chip - 12(5) :882–91 - DOI: 10.1039/c2lc21035e - 2012
In vitro screening systems based on the coupled transcription and translation of genes using cell-free systems have a number of attractive features for protein engineering and directed evolution. We present a completely in vitro ultrahigh-throughput screening platform using droplet-based microfluidics. Single genes are compartmentalized in aqueous droplets, dispersed in inert carrier oil, and amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After amplification, the droplets, now containing 30,000 copies of each gene, are fused one-to-one with droplets containing a cell-free coupled transcription-translation (IVTT) system and the reagents for a fluorogenic assay. Fluorescence-activated electrocoalescence with an aqueous stream is then used to selectively recover genes from droplets containing the desired activity. We demonstrate, by selecting mixtures of lacZ genes encoding the enzyme β-galactosidase and lacZmut genes encoding an inactive variant, that this system can sort at 2000 droplets s(-1): lacZ genes were enriched 502-fold from a 1 : 100 molar ratio of lacZ : lacZmut genes. Indeed, the false positive and false negative error rates were both <0.004 and the results indicate that enrichment is not limited by the sorting efficiency, but by the co-encapsulation of multiple genes in droplets, which is described by the Poisson distribution. Compared to screening using microtiter plate-based systems, the volume and cost of PCR and IVTT reagents are reduced by almost 10(5)-fold, allowing the screening of 10(6) genes using only 150 μL of reagents.
Functional single-cell hybridoma screening using droplet-based microfluidics
Laboratoire Biochimie - B. El Debs, R. Utharala, I.V. Balyasnikova, A.D. Griffiths and C.A. Merten
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA - 109(29) :11570-5 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1204514109 - 2012
Monoclonal antibodies can specifically bind or even inhibit drug targets and have hence become the fastest growing class of human therapeutics. Although they can be screened for binding affinities at very high throughput using systems such as phage display, screening for functional properties (e.g., the inhibition of a drug target) is much more challenging. Typically these screens require the generation of immortalized hybridoma cells, as well as clonal expansion in microtiter plates over several weeks, and the number of clones that can be assayed is typically no more than a few thousand. We present here a microfluidic platform allowing the functional screening of up to 300,000 individual hybridoma cell clones within less than a day. This approach should also be applicable to nonimmortalized primary B-cells, as no cell proliferation is required: Individual cells are encapsulated into aqueous microdroplets and assayed directly for the release of antibodies inhibiting a drug target based on fluorescence. We used this system to perform a model screen for antibodies that inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme 1, a target for hypertension and congestive heart failure drugs. When cells expressing these antibodies were spiked into an unrelated hybridoma cell population in a ratio of 1:10,000 we observed a 9,400-fold enrichment after fluorescence activated droplet sorting. A wide variance in antibody expression levels at the single-cell level within a single hybridoma line was observed and high expressors could be successfully sorted and recultivated.
Membraneless glucose/O2 microfluidic biofuel cells using covalently bound enzymes
Laboratoire Biochimie - T. Beneyton, I Putu Mahendra Wijaya,a C. Ben Salem, A. D. Griffiths and V. Taly
Chem. Comm. - 49 1094–1096 - - 2012
Fine control of nuclear confinement identifies a threshold deformation leading to lamina rupture and induction of specific genes
Laboratoire Biologie cellulaire systémique de la polarité et de la division - Berre M, Aubertin J, Piel M
Integr Biol (Camb) - 4(11) :1406-14 - DOI:10.1039/c2ib20056b - 2012
The quest to understand how the mechanical and geometrical environment of cells impacts their behavior and fate has been a major force driving the recent development of new technologies in cell biology research. Despite rapid advances in this field, many challenges remain in order to bridge the gap between the classical and simple cell culture plate and the biological reality of actual tissue. In tissues, cells have their physical space constrained by neighboring cells and the extracellular matrix. Here, we propose a simple and versatile device to precisely and dynamically control this confinement parameter in cultured cells. We show that there is a precise threshold deformation above which the nuclear lamina breaks and reconstructs, whereas nuclear volume changes. We also show that different nuclear deformations correlate with the expression of specific sets of genes, including nuclear factors and classical mechanotransduction pathways. This versatile device thus enables the precise control of cell and nuclear deformation by confinement and the correlative study of the associated molecular events.
The first World Cell Race
Laboratoire Biologie cellulaire systémique de la polarité et de la division - Maiuri P, Terriac E, Paul-Gilloteaux P, Vignaud T, McNally K, Onuffer J, Thorn K, Nguyen PA, Georgoulia N, Soong D, Jayo A, Beil N, Beneke J, Hong Lim JC, Pei-Ying Sim C, Chu YS; WCR participants, Jiménez-Dalmaroni A, Joanny JF, Thiery JP, Erfle H, Parson
Curr Biol. - 22(17) :R673-5 - DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2012.07.052 - 2012
Motility is a common property of animal cells. Cell motility is required for embryogenesis [1], tissue morphogenesis [2] and the immune response [3] but is also involved in disease processes, such as metastasis of cancer cells [4]. Analysis of cell migration in native tissue in vivo has yet to be fully explored, but motility can be relatively easily studied in vitro in isolated cells. Recent evidence suggests that cells plated in vitro on thin lines of adhesive proteins printed onto culture dishes can recapitulate many features of in vivo migration on collagen fibers [5,6]. However, even with controlled in vitro measurements, the characteristics of motility are diverse and are dependent on the cell type, origin and external cues. One objective of the first World Cell Race was to perform a large-scale comparison of motility across many different adherent cell types under standardized conditions. To achieve a diverse selection, we enlisted the help of many international laboratories, who submitted cells for analysis. The large-scale analysis, made feasible by this competition-oriented collaboration, demonstrated that higher cell speed correlates with the persistence of movement in the same direction irrespective of cell origin.


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