Université PSL



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Microchip integrating magnetic nanoparticles for allergy diagnosis
Teste B, Malloggi F, Siaugue JM, Varenne A, Kanoufi F, Descroix S.
Lab. Chip - 11(24) :4207-13 - DOI:10.1039/c1lc20809h - 2011
We report on the development of a simple and easy to use microchip dedicated to allergy diagnosis. This microchip combines both the advantages of homogeneous immunoassays i.e. species diffusion and heterogeneous immunoassays i.e. easy separation and preconcentration steps. In vitro allergy diagnosis is based on specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE) quantitation, in that way we have developed and integrated magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNPs) as an IgE capture nanoplatform in a microdevice taking benefit from both their magnetic and colloidal properties. Integrating such immunosupport allows to perform the target analyte (IgE) capture in the colloidal phase thus increasing the analyte capture kinetics since both immunological partners are diffusing during the immune reaction. This colloidal approach improves 1000 times the analyte capture kinetics compared to conventional methods. Moreover, based on the MCSNPs' magnetic properties and on the magnetic chamber we have previously developed the MCSNPs and therefore the target can be confined and preconcentrated within the microdevice prior to the detection step. The MCSNPs preconcentration factor achieved was about 35,000 and allows to reach high sensitivity thus avoiding catalytic amplification during the detection step. The developed microchip offers many advantages: the analytical procedure was fully integrated on-chip, analyses were performed in short assay time (20 min), the sample and reagents consumption was reduced to few microlitres (5 µL) while a low limit of detection can be achieved (about 1 ng mL(-1)).
On-chip multi-electrochemical sensor array platform for simultaneous screening of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite
Quinton D., Girard A., Kim LTT., Raimbault V., Griscom L., Razan F., Griveau S., Bedioui F.
Lab. Chip - 11 :1342-50 - DOI:10.1039/c0lc00585a - 2011
In this work we report on the design, microfabrication and analytical performances of a new electrochemical sensor array (ESA) which allows for the first time the simultaneous amperometric detection of nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), two biologically relevant molecules. The on-chip device includes individually addressable sets of gold ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs) of 50 µm diameter, Ag/AgCl reference electrode and gold counter electrode. The electrodes are separated into two groups; each has one reference electrode, one counter electrode and 110 UMEs specifically tailored to detect a specific analyte. The ESA is incorporated on a custom interface with a cell culture well and spring contact pins that can be easily interconnected to an external multichannel potentiostat. Each UME of the network dedicated to the detection of NO is electrochemically modified by electrodepositing thin layers of poly(eugenol) and poly(phenol). The detection of NO is performed amperometrically at 0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH = 7.4) and other buffers adapted to biological cell culture, using a NO-donor. The network of UMEs dedicated to the detection of ONOO(-) is used without further chemical modification of the surface and the uncoated gold electrodes operate at -0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl to detect the reduction of ONOOH in PBS. The selectivity issue of both sensors against major biologically relevant interfering analytes is examined. Simultaneous detection of NO and ONOO(-) in PBS is also achieved.
Magnetic core shell nanoparticles trapping in a microdevice generating high magnetic gradient
Teste B, Malloggi F, Gassner AL, Georgelin T, Siaugue JM, Varenne A, Girault H, Descroix S.
Lab. Chip - 11(5) :833-40 - DOI:10.1039/c0lc00510j - 2011
Magnetic core shell nanoparticles (MCSNPs) 30 nm diameter with a magnetic weight of 10% are usually much too small to be trapped in microfluidic systems using classical external magnets. Here, a simple microchip for efficient MCSNPs trapping and release is presented. It comprises a bed of micrometric iron beads (6-8 µm diameter) packed in a microchannel against a physical restriction and presenting a low dead volume of 0.8 nL. These beads of high magnetic permeability are used to focus magnetic field lines from an external permanent magnet and generate local high magnetic gradients. The nanoparticles magnetic trap has been characterised both by numerical simulations and fluorescent MCSNPs imaging. Numerical simulations have been performed to map both the magnetic flux density and the magnetic force, and showed that MCSNPs are preferentially trapped at the iron bead magnetic poles where the magnetic force is increased by 3 orders of magnitude. The trapping efficiency was experimentally determined using fluorescent MCSNPs for different flow rates, different iron beads and permanent magnet positions. At a flow rate of 100 µL h(-1), the nanoparticles trapping/release can be achieved within 20 s with a preconcentration factor of 4000.
Determination of binding parameters between lysozyme and its aptamer by frontal analysis continuous microchip electrophoresis (FACMCE)
Girardot M, Li HY, Descroix S, Varenne A.
J. Chrom. A - 1218 :4052-8 - DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2011.04.077 - 2011
An original and simple methodology based on microchip electrophoresis (MCE) in a continuous frontal analysis mode (named frontal analysis continuous microchip electrophoresis, FACMCE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of the binding parameters, i.e. ligand-site dissociation constant (k(d)) and number of binding sites on the substrate (n). This simultaneous determination was exemplified with the interaction between an aptamer and its target. The selected target is a strongly basic protein, lysozyme, as its quantification is of great interest due to its antimicrobial and allergenic properties. A glass microdevice equipped with a fluorescence detection system was coated with hydroxypropylcellulose, reducing the electroosmotic flow and adsorption onto the channel walls. This microdevice allowed the continuous electrokinetic injection of a mixture of fluorescently labelled aptamer and non-labelled lysozyme. By determining the concentration of the free fluorescently labelled aptamer thanks to its corresponding plateau height, mathematical linearization methods allowed to determine a k(d) value of 48.4±8.0 nM, consistent with reported results (31 nM), while the average number of binding sites n on lysozyme, never determined before, was 0.16±0.03. These results seem to indicate that the buffer nature and the SELEX process should influence the number and affinity of the binding sites. In parallel it has been shown that the binding between lysozyme and its aptamer presents two sites of different binding affinities.
Microelectrochemical patterning of gold surfaces using 4-azidobenzenediazonium and scanning electrochemical microscopy
Coates M., Cabet E., Griveau S., Nyokong T., Bedioui F.
Electrochemistry Communications - 13 :150-3 - DOI:10.1016/j.elecom.2010.11.037 - 2011
This work describes for the first time the possibility of performing local micro electrochemical grafting of a gold substrate by 4-azidobenzenediazonium by SECM in a single and simple one step without complications from adsorption. The electrografted spots of diazonium were performed by positioning a Pt tip at a given distance above the gold substrate and the SECM was used in a three-electrode configuration (the Pt tip serving as the microanode) in acetonitrile containing 5 mM 4-azidobenzenediazonium and 0.1 M Bu4NBF4 during 10 ms. The dimensions of the derivatized areas of the substrates were finely tuned by using different experimental conditions (tip distance above the substrate, tip diameter, presence or absence of supporting electrolyte). The use of the azido-derivated diazonium molecule and these preliminary results open the gate to important applications and developments devoted to the local micro functionalization of electrodes by thin layers that allow the implementation of the emerging and attractive interfacial click reaction.
Ultra-high-throughput screening in drop-based microfluidics for directed evolution of peroxidases
J.J. Agresti, E. Antipov, A.R. Abate, K. Ahn, A.C. Rowat, J.-C. Baret, M. Marquez, A.M. Klibanov, A.D. Griffiths, David A. Weitz
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA - 107(9) :4004-9 - DOI:10.1073/pnas.0910781107 - 2010
The explosive growth in our knowledge of genomes, proteomes, and metabolomes is driving ever-increasing fundamental understanding of the biochemistry of life, enabling qualitatively new studies of complex biological systems and their evolution. This knowledge also drives modern biotechnologies, such as molecular engineering and synthetic biology, which have enormous potential to address urgent problems, including developing potent new drugs and providing environmentally friendly energy. Many of these studies, however, are ultimately limited by their need for even-higher-throughput measurements of biochemical reactions. We present a general ultrahigh-throughput screening platform using drop-based microfluidics that overcomes these limitations and revolutionizes both the scale and speed of screening. We use aqueous drops dispersed in oil as picoliter-volume reaction vessels and screen them at rates of thousands per second. To demonstrate its power, we apply the system to directed evolution, identifying new mutants of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase exhibiting catalytic rates more than 10 times faster than their parent, which is already a very efficient enzyme. We exploit the ultrahigh throughput to use an initial purifying selection that removes inactive mutants; we identify ∼100 variants comparable in activity to the parent from an initial population of ∼107. After a second generation of mutagenesis and high-stringency screening, we identify several significantly improved mutants, some approaching diffusion-limited efficiency. In total, we screen ∼108 individual enzyme reactions in only 10 h, using < 150 μL of total reagent volume; compared to state-of-the-art robotic screening systems, we perform the entire assay with a 1,000-fold increase in speed and a 1-million-fold reduction in cost.
Quantitative cell-based reporter gene assays using droplet-based microfluidics
J.-C. Baret, Y. Beck, I. Billas-Massobrio, D. Moras and A.D. Griffiths
Chem. Biol. - 17(5) :528–36 - DOI: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2010.04.010 - 2010
We used a droplet-based microfluidic system to perform a quantitative cell-based reporter gene assay for a nuclear receptor ligand. Single Bombyx mori cells are compartmentalized in nanoliter droplets which function as microreactors with a >1000-fold smaller volume than a microtiter-plate well, together with eight or ten discrete concentrations of 20-hydroxyecdysone, generated by on-chip dilution over 3 decades and encoded by a fluorescent label. The simultaneous measurement of the expression of green fluorescent protein by the reporter gene and of the fluorescent label allows construction of the dose-response profile of the hormone at the single-cell level. Screening approximately 7500 cells per concentration provides statistically relevant data that allow precise measurement of the EC(50) (70 nM +/- 12%, alpha = 0.05), in agreement with standard methods as well as with literature data.
Microfluidic Sorting and High Content Multimodal Typing of Cancer Cells in Self-Assembled Magnetic Arrays
Saliba AE, Saias L, Psichari E, Minc N, Simon, D, Mathiot C, Bidard FC, Pierga JY,Fraisier V, Salamero J, Saada V, Farace F, Vielh P, Malaquin L, Viovy JL.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA - 107(33) :14524–9 - DOI:10.1073/pnas.1001515107 - 2010
We propose a unique method for cell sorting, “Ephesia,” using columns of biofunctionalized superparamagnetic beads self-assembled in a microfluidic channel onto an array of magnetic traps prepared by microcontact printing. It combines the advantages of microfluidic cell sorting, notably the application of a well controlled, flow-activated interaction between cells and beads, and those of immunomagnetic sorting, notably the use of batch-prepared, well characterized antibody-bearing beads. On cell lines mixtures, we demonstrated a capture yield better than 94%, and the possibility to cultivate in situ the captured cells. A second series of experiments involved clinical samples—blood, pleural effusion, and fine needle aspirates— issued from healthy donors and patients with B-cell hematological malignant tumors (leukemia and lymphoma). The immunophenotype and morphology of B-lymphocytes were analyzed directly in the microfluidic chamber, and compared with conventional flow cytometry and visual cytology data, in a blind test. Immunophenotyping results using Ephesia were fully consistent with those obtained by flow cytometry. We obtained in situ high resolution confocal three-dimensional images of the cell nuclei, showing intranuclear details consistent with conventional cytological staining. Ephesia thus provides a powerful approach to cell capture and typing allowing fully automated high resolution and quantitative immunophenotyping and morphological analysis. It requires at least 10 times smaller sample volume and cell numbers than cytometry, potentially increasing the range of indications and the success rate of microbiopsy-based diagnosis, and reducing analysis time and cost.
Microchip electrophoresis profiling of AB peptides in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer’s disease
Mohamadi MR, Svobodova Z, Verpillot R, Esselmann H, Wiltfang J, Otto M, Taverna M, Bilkova Z, Viovy JL.
Anal. Chem. - 82(18) :7611-7 - DOI:10.1063/1.4722588 - 2010
The preferential aggregation of Aß1-42 in amyloid plaques is one of the major neuropathological events in Alzheimer's disease. This is accompanied by a relative reduction of the concentration of Aß1-42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients developing the signs of Alzheimer's disease. Here, we describe a microchip gel electrophoresis method in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip that enables rapid profiling of major Aß peptides in cerebrospinal fluid. To control the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in the PDMS channel and also to reduce the adsorption of the peptides to the surface of the channel, a new double coating using poly(dimethylacrylamide-co-allyl glycidyl ether) (PDMA-AGE) and methylcellulose-Tween-20 was developed. With this method, separation of five synthetic Aß peptides (Aß1-37, Aß1-38, Aß1-39, Aß1-40, and Aß1-42) was achieved, and relative abundance of Aß1-42 to Aß1-37 could be calculated in different standard mixtures. We applied our method for profiling of Aß peptides in CSF samples from nonAlzheimer patients and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Aß peptides in the CSF samples were captured and concentrated using a microfluidic system in which magnetic beads coated with anti-Aß were self-organized into an affinity microcolumn under the a permanent magnetic field. Finally, we could detect two Aß peptides (Aß1-40 and Aß1-42) in the CSF samples.
Monodisperse Colloids Synthesized with Nanofluidic Technology
F. Malloggi, N. Pannacci, R. Attia, F. Monti, P. Mary, H. Villaime, P. Tabeling, B. Cabane, P. Poncet
Langmuir - 26(4) :2369-73 - DOI:10.1021/la9028047 - 2010
Limitations in the methods employed to generate micrometric colloidal droplets hinder the emergence of key applications in the fields of material science and drug delivery. Through the use of dedicated nanofluidic devices and by taking advantage of an original physical effect called capillary focusing, we could circumvent some of these limitations. The nanofluidic (i.e., submicrometric) devices introduced herein are made of soft materials, and their fabrication relies upon rapid technologies. The objects that we have generated are simple droplets, multiple droplets, particles, and Janus particles whose sizes lie between 900 nm and 3 µm (i.e., within the colloidal range). Colloidal droplets have been assembled on-chip into clusters and crystals, yielding discrete diffraction patterns. We illustrate potential applications in the field of drug delivery by demonstrating the ability of multiple droplets to be phagocytosed by murine macrophage-type cells.

405 publications.