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Stable liquid foams from a new polyfluorinated surfactant
Laboratoire Microfluidique MEMS et nanostructures - Maria Russo, Zacharias Amara, Johan Fenneteau, Pauline Chaumont-Olive, Ilham Maimouni, Patrick Tabeling and Janine Cossy
Chem. Comm. - 56 5807-5810 - doi.org/10.1039/D0CC02182B - 2020
Liquid foams exhibiting long-term stability are a key-challenge in material design. Based on this perspective, new pyridinium polyfluorinated surfactants were synthesized from simple building blocks enabling unusually stable liquid foams. While the batch-generated foams were used for qualitative foaming evaluation, microfluidics allowed a quantitative insight into the aging effects of monodisperse foams.
Ultrafast photomechanical transduction through thermophoretic implosion
Laboratoire Micromégas - N. Kavokine, S. Zou, R. Liu, H. Zhong, A. Nigues, B. Zou and L. Bocquet
Nature Communications - 11(1) 50 - doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13912-w - 2020
Since the historical experiments of Crookes, the direct manipulation of matter by light has been both a challenge and a source of scientific debate. Here we show that laser illumination allows to displace a vial of nanoparticle solution over centimetre-scale distances. Cantilever-based force measurements show that the movement is due to millisecond-long force spikes, which are synchronised with a sound emission. We observe that the nanoparticles undergo negative thermophoresis, and ultrafast imaging reveals that the force spikes are followed by the explosive growth of a bubble in the solution. We propose a mechanism accounting for the propulsion based on a thermophoretic instability of the nanoparticle cloud, analogous to the Jeans’s instability that occurs in gravitational systems. Our experiments demonstrate a new type of laser propulsion and a remarkably violent actuation of soft matter, reminiscent of the strategy used by certain plants to propel their spores.
Fluids at the Nanoscale: From Continuum to Subcontinuum Transport
Laboratoire Micromégas - Nikita Kavokine, Roland R. Netz, and Lydéric Bocquet
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics - 53 50 - https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-fluid-071320-095958 - 2020
Nanofluidics has firmly established itself as a new field in fluid mechanics, as novel properties have been shown to emerge in fluids at the nanometric scale. Thanks to recent developments in fabrication technology, artificial nanofluidic systems are now being designed at the scale of biological nanopores. This ultimate step in scale reduction has pushed the development of new experimental techniques and new theoretical tools, bridging fluid mechanics, statistical mechanics, and condensed matter physics. This review is intended as a toolbox for fluids at the nanometer scale. After presenting the basic equations that govern fluid behavior in the continuum limit, we show how these equations break down and new properties emerge in molecular-scale confinement. A large number of analytical estimates and physical arguments are given to organize the results and different limits.
Mechanically activated ionic transport across single-digit carbon nanotubes
Laboratoire Micromégas - Alice Marcotte, Timothée Mouterde, Antoine Niguès, Alessandro Siria & Lydéric Bocquet
Nature Materials - 19 1057–1061 - https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-fluid-071320-095958 - 2020
Fluid and ionic transport at the nanoscale has recently demonstrated a wealth of exotic behaviours1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14. However, artificial nanofluidic devices15,16,17,18 are still far from demonstrating the advanced functionalities existing in biological systems, such as electrically and mechanically activated transport19,20. Here, we focus on ionic transport through 2-nm-radius individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes under the combination of mechanical and electrical forcings. Our findings evidence mechanically activated ionic transport in the form of an ionic conductance that depends quadratically on the applied pressure. Our theoretical study relates this behaviour to the complex interplay between electrical and mechanical drivings, and shows that the superlubricity of the carbon nanotubes4,5,6,7,8,21 is a prerequisite to attaining mechanically activated transport. The pressure sensitivity shares similarities with the response of biological mechanosensitive ion channels19,20, but observed here in an artificial system. This paves the way to build new active nanofluidic functionalities inspired by complex biological machinery
Studying polymer diffusiophoresis with non-equilibrium molecular dynamics
Laboratoire Micromégas - S. Ramírez-Hinestrosa, H. Yoshida, L. Bocquet, and D. Frenkel
Chem. Phys - 152 164901 - https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0007235 - 2020
We report a numerical study of the diffusiophoresis of short polymers using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. More precisely, we consider polymer chains in a fluid containing a solute that has a concentration gradient and examine the variation of the induced diffusiophoretic velocity of the polymer chains as the interaction between the monomer and the solute is varied. We find that there is a non-monotonic relation between the diffusiophoretic mobility and the strength of the monomer–solute interaction. In addition, we find a weak dependence of the mobility on the length of the polymer chain, which shows clear difference from the diffusiophoresis of a solid particle. Interestingly, the hydrodynamic flow through the polymer is much less screened than for pressure driven flows.
Nanofluidics coming of age
Laboratoire Micromégas - Lydéric Bocquet
Nature Materials - 19 254–256 - https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-0625-8 - 2020
This is a turning point for nanofluidics. Recent progress allows envisioning both fundamental discoveries for the transport of fluids at the ultimate scales, and disruptive technologies for the water–energy nexus
Local and global force balance for diffusiophoretic transport
Laboratoire Micromégas - S. Marbach , H. Yoshida and L. Bocquet
J. Fluid Mech - 892 - doi:10.1017/jfm.2020.137 - 2020
Electro- and diffusio-phoresis of particles correspond respectively to the transport of particles under electric field and solute concentration gradients. Such interfacial transport phenomena take their origin in a diffuse layer close to the particle surface, and the motion of the particle is force free. In the case of electrophoresis, it is further expected that the stress acting on the moving particle vanishes locally as a consequence of local electroneutrality. But the argument does not apply to diffusiophoresis, which takes its origin in solute concentration gradients. In this paper we investigate further the local and global force balance on a particle undergoing diffusiophoresis. We calculate the local tension applied on the particle surface and show that, counter-intuitively, the local force on the particle does not vanish for diffusiophoresis, in spite of the global force being zero, as expected. Incidentally, our description allows us to clarify the osmotic balance in diffusiophoresis, which has been a source of debate in recent years. We explore various cases, including hard and soft interactions, as well as porous particles, and provide analytic predictions for the local force balance in these various systems. The existence of local stresses may induce deformation of soft particles undergoing diffusiophoresis, hence suggesting applications in terms of particle separation based on capillary diffusiophoresis.
Integration of a soft dielectric composite into a cantilever beam for mechanical energy harvesting, comparison between capacitive and triboelectric transducers
Laboratoire MIE - Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Mickaël Pruvost, Wilbert J. Smit, Cécile Monteux, Pablo Del Corro, Isabelle Dufour, Cédric Ayela, Philippe Poulin & Annie Colin
Scientific Reports - 10 20681 - - 2020
Flexible dielectrics that harvest mechanical energy via electrostatic effects are excellent candidates as power sources for wearable electronics or autonomous sensors. The integration of a soft dielectric composite (polydimethylsiloxane PDMS-carbon black CB) into two mechanical energy harvesters is here presented. Both are based on a similar cantilever beam but work on different harvesting principles: variable capacitor and triboelectricity. We show that without an external bias the triboelectric beam harvests a net density power of 0.3 μW/cm2 under a sinusoidal acceleration of 3.9g at 40 Hz. In a variable capacitor configuration, a bias of 0.15 V/μm is required to get the same energy harvesting performance under the same working conditions. As variable capacitors’ harvesting performance are quadratically dependent on the applied bias, increasing the bias allows the system to harvest energy much more efficiently than the triboelectric one. The present results make CB/PDMS composites promising for autonomous portable multifunctional systems and intelligent sensors.
Emulsion Destabilization by Squeeze Flow
Laboratoire MIE - Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Riande I Dekker, Antoine Deblais, Krassimir P Velikov , Peter Veenstra , Annie Colin , Hamid Kellay , Willem K Kegel , Daniel Bonn
Langmuir - 36(27) 7795-7800 - doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c00759 - 2020
There is a large debate on the destabilization mechanism of emulsions. We present a simple technique using mechanical compression to destabilize oil-in-water emulsions. Upon compression of the emulsion, the continuous aqueous phase is squeezed out, while the dispersed oil phase progressively deforms from circular to honeycomb-like shapes. The films that separate the oil droplets are observed to thin and break at a critical oil/water ratio, leading to coalescence events. Electrostatic interactions and local droplet rearrangements do not determine film rupture. Instead, the destabilization occurs like an avalanche propagating through the system, starting at areas where the film thickness is smallest.
Density waves in shear-thickening suspensions
Laboratoire MIE - Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Guillaume Ovarlez, Anh Vu Nguyen Le2, Wilbert J. Smit2, Abdoulaye Fall
Science Advances - 6 16 - DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay5589 - 2020
Shear thickening corresponds to an increase of the viscosity as a function of the shear rate. It is observed in many concentrated suspensions in nature and industry: water or oil saturated sediments, crystal-bearing magma, fresh concrete, silica suspensions, and cornstarch mixtures. Here, we reveal how shear-thickening suspensions flow, shedding light onto as yet non-understood complex dynamics reported in the literature. When shear thickening is important, we show the existence of density fluctuations that appear as periodic waves moving in the direction of flow and breaking azimuthal symmetry. They come with strong normal stress fluctuations of the same periodicity. The flow includes small areas of normal stresses of the order of tens of kilopascals and areas of normal stresses of the order of hundreds of pascals. These stress inhomogeneities could play an important role in the damage caused by thickening fluids in the industry.
Shear thickening in dense non-Brownian suspensions: Viscous to inertial transition
Laboratoire MIE - Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Y. Madraki, A. Oakley, A. Nguyen Le, A. Colin, G. Ovarlez, and S. Hormozi
Journal of Rheology - 64 27 - doi.org/10.1122/1.5129680 - 2020
We present an experimental study on the viscous to inertial mode of shear thickening in dense non-Brownian suspensions. We design a model suspension consisting of monosized spherical particles within a Newtonian suspending fluid. We develop a protocol for the rheological characterization of dense suspensions using the conventional rheometry technique. Our results provide constitutive laws for suspensions with solid volume fractions close to jamming when both viscous and inertial effects at the particle scale are present. We perform atomic force microscopy to measure forces between the particles immersed in the suspending fluid and show that our system of study corresponds to the frictionless regime of dense suspensions in which viscous and collisional forces dissipate the energy. Finally, we show that the proposed empirical constitutive laws, when approaching jamming, predict the dynamics of dense suspensions in a transient boundary driven flow.
Impact of the Wetting Length on Flexible Blade Spreading
Laboratoire MIE - Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Marion Krapez, Anaïs Gauthier, Hamid Kellay, Jean-Baptiste Boitte, Odile Aubrun, Jean-François Joanny, and Annie Colin
Phys. Rev. Lett. - 125 254506 - DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103 - 2020
We study the spreading of a Newtonian fluid by a deformable blade, a common industrial problem, characteristic of elastohydrodynamic situations. Here, we consider the case of a finite reservoir of liquid, emptying as the liquid is spread. We evidence the role of a central variable: the wetting length , which sets a boundary between the wet and dry parts of the blade. We show that the deposited film thickness
depends quadratically with. We study this problem experimentally and numerically by integration of the elastohydrodynamic equations, and finally propose a scaling law model to explain how influences the spreading dynamics.
A new pressure sensor array for local normal stress measurement in complex fluids
Laboratoire MIE - Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Gauthier Anaïs, Mickael Pruvost, Gamache Olivier, Annie Colin
- - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344603305 - 2020
A new pressure sensor array, positioned on the bottom plate of a standard torsional rheometer is presented. It is built from a unique piezo-capacitive polymeric foam, and consists of twenty-five capacitive pressure sensors (of surface 4.5$\times$4.5 mm$^2$ each) built together in a 5$\times$5 regular array. The sensor array is used to obtain a local mapping of the normal stresses in complex fluids, which dramatically extends the capability of the rheometer. We demonstrate this with three examples. First, the pressure profile is reconstructed in a polymer solution, which enable the simultaneous measurement of the first and the second normal stress differences $N_1$ and $N_2$, with a precision of 2 Pa. In a second part, we show that negative normal stresses can also be detected. Finally, we focus on the normal stress fluctuations that extend both spatially and temporally ina shear-thickening suspension of cornstarch particles. We evidence the presence of local a unique heterogeneity rotating very regularly. In addition to their low-cost and high versatility, the sensors show here their potential to finely characterize the normal stresses in viscosimetric flows
Stereo Darkfield Interferometry : a versatile localization method for subnanometer force spectroscopy of single molecules and 3D-tracking of single cells
Laboratoire Physique des biomolécules - Martin Rieu, Thibault Vieille, Gaël Radou, Raphaël Jeanneret, Nadia Ruiz, Bertrand Ducos, Jean-François Allemand, Vincent Croquette
Biological Physics - - DOI:10.1126/sciadv.abe3902 - 2020
Super-resolutive 3D tracking, such as PSF engineering or evanescent field imaging has long been used to track microparticles and to enhance the throughput of single molecules force spectroscopic measurements. However, current methods present two drawbacks. First, they lack precision compared with optical tweezers or AFM. Second, the dependence of their signal upon the position is complex creating the need for a time-consuming calibration step.
Here, we introduce a new optical technique that circumvents both issues and allows for a simple, versatile and efficient 3D tracking of diluted particles while offering a sub-nanometer frame-to-frame precision in all three spatial directions. The principle is to combine stereoscopy and interferometry, such that the z (axial) position is measured through the distance between two interferometric fringe patterns. The linearity of this stereoscopy technique alleviates the need for lookup tables while the structured interferometric pattern enhances precision. On the other hand, the extended spatial footprint of this PSF maximizes the number of photons detected per frame without the need of fancy cameras, nor the need for complex hardware. Hence, thanks to its simplicity and versatility, we believe that SDI (Stereo Darkfield Interferometry) technology has the potential to significantly enhance the spreading of 3D tracking.
We demonstrate the efficiency of this technique on various single-molecule measurements thanks to magnetic tweezers. In particular we demonstrate the precise quantification of two-state dynamics involving axial steps as short as 1 nm. We then show that SDI can be directly embedded in a commercial objective providing a means to track multiple single cells in 3D .
Visualizing the dynamics of exported bacterial proteins with the chemogenetic fluorescent reporter FAST
Laboratoire Physique des biomolécules - Chekli, Yankel; Peron-Cane, Caroline; Dell'Arciprete, Dario; Allemand, Jean-François; Li, Chenge; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Gautier, Arnaud; Lebreton, Alice; Desprat, Nicolas; Beloin, Christophe
Scientific Reports - 10(1) 15791 - 10.1038/s41598-020-72498-2 - 2020
Bacterial proteins exported to the cell surface play key cellular functions. However, despite the interest to study the localisation of surface proteins such as adhesins, transporters or hydrolases, monitoring their dynamics in live imaging remains challenging, due to the limited availability of fluorescent probes remaining functional after secretion. In this work, we used the Escherichia coli intimin and the Listeria monocytogenes InlB invasin as surface exposed scaffolds fused with the recently developed chemogenetic fluorescent reporter protein FAST. Using both membrane permeant (HBR-3,5DM) and non-permeant (HBRAA-3E) fluorogens that fluoresce upon binding to FAST, we demonstrated that fully functional FAST can be exposed at the cell surface and used to specifically tag the external side of the bacterial envelop in both diderm and monoderm bacteria. Our work opens new avenues to study the organization and dynamics of the bacterial cell surface proteins.
Fluorescent secreted bacterial effectors reveal active intravacuolar proliferation of Listeria monocytogenes in epithelial cells
Laboratoire Physique des biomolécules - Peron-Cane, Caroline; Fernandez, José-Carlos; Leblanc, Julien; Wingertsmann, Laure; Gautier, Arnaud; Desprat, Nicolas; Lebreton, Alice
journal article - 16(10) e1009001 - 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009001 - 2020
Real-time imaging of bacterial virulence factor dynamics is hampered by the limited number of fluorescent tools suitable for tagging secreted effectors. Here, we demonstrated that the fluorogenic reporter FAST could be used to tag secreted proteins, and we implemented it to monitor infection dynamics in epithelial cells exposed to the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). By tracking individual FAST-labelled vacuoles after Lm internalisation into cells, we unveiled the heterogeneity of residence time inside entry vacuoles. Although half of the bacterial population escaped within 13 minutes after entry, 12% of bacteria remained entrapped over an hour inside long term vacuoles, and sometimes much longer, regardless of the secretion of the pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O (LLO). We imaged LLO-FAST in these long-term vacuoles, and showed that LLO enabled Lm to proliferate inside these compartments, reminiscent of what had been previously observed for Spacious Listeria-containing phagosomes (SLAPs). Unexpectedly, inside epithelial SLAP-like vacuoles (eSLAPs), Lm proliferated as fast as in the host cytosol. eSLAPs thus constitute an alternative replication niche in epithelial cells that might promote the colonization of host tissues.s.
Fluorescence-free quantification of protein/nucleic-acid binding through single-molecule kinetic locking
Laboratoire Physique des biomolécules - Martin Rieu; Valle-Orero, Jessica; Ducos, Bertrand; Allemand, Jean-François; Croquette, Vincent
bioRxiv - - 10.1101/2020.09.30.321232 - 2020
Fluorescence-free micro-manipulation of nucleic acids (NA) allows the functional characterization of DNA/RNA processing proteins, without the interference of labels, but currently fails to detect and quantify their binding. To overcome this limitation, we developed a new method based on single-molecule force spectroscopy, called kinetic locking, that allows a direct in vitro visualization of protein binding while avoiding any kind of chemical disturbance of the protein’s natural function. We validate kinetic locking by measuring accurately the hybridization energy of ultrashort nucleotides (5,6,7 bases) and use it to measure the dynamical interactions of E. coli RecQ helicase with its DNA substrate.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.
An Epigenetic Priming Mechanism Mediated by Nutrient Sensing Regulates Transcriptional Output
Laboratoire pour la biologie quantitative du développement - Natalia Stec, Katja Doerfel, Kelly Hills-Muckey, Victoria M. Ettorre, Sevinc Ercan, Wolfgang Keil, C. M. Hammell
bioRxiv - - doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.01.278127 - 2020
While precise tuning of gene expression levels is critical for most developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which the transcriptional output of dosage-sensitive molecules is established or modulated by the environment remain poorly understood. Here, we provide a mechanistic framework for how the conserved transcription factor BLMP-1/Blimp1 operates as a pioneer factor to decompact chromatin near its target loci hours before transcriptional activation and by doing so, regulates both the duration and amplitude of subsequent target gene transcription. This priming mechanism is genetically separable from the mechanisms that establish the timing of transcriptional induction and functions to canalize aspects of cell-fate specification, animal size regulation, and molting. A key feature of the BLMP-1-dependent transcriptional priming mechanism is that chromatin decompaction is initially established during embryogenesis and maintained throughout larval development by nutrient sensing. This anticipatory mechanism integrates transcriptional output with environmental conditions and is essential for resuming normal temporal patterning after animals exit nutrient-mediated developmental arrests.
Electrocatalytic behaviour of CeZrOx-supported Ni catalysts in plasma assisted CO2 methanation
Laboratoire Procédés - Plasmas - Microsystèmes - Maria Mikhail, Patrick Da Costa, Jacques Amouroux, Siméon Cavadias, Michael Tatoulian, Stéphanie Ognier and María Elena Gálvez
Catalys Science & Technology - 10 4532-4543 - https://doi.org/10.1039/D0CY00312C - 2020
Plasma-catalytic and thermo-catalytic methanation were assayed in the presence of a CeZrOx-supported Ni catalyst, proving that high CO2 conversions and high methane yields can be obtained under dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma conditions and that they are maintained with time-on-stream over 100 h operating time. The characterization of the spent catalysts through TPD-MS, ATR-FTIR, TEM and HR-TEM and XRD evidenced the coexistence of a Ni0/NiO phase together with an increased presence of Ce3+ cations and oxygen vacancies, on the surface of the catalyst submitted to plasma catalytic operation. The different facts collected through physicochemical characterization point to our catalyst behaving like a PN junction, or like a fuel cell, with a P-side, the anode, i.e. the Ni-side releasing electrodes, while the CeZrOx support, N-side and cathode, acts as an acceptor. The DBD plasma, rich in ionic species and free electrodes, acts as the electrolyte, conducting the electrodes in the right direction. Oxygen accumulation on the surface of the catalyst during thermo-catalytic methanation leads to the formation of non-reactive adsorbed species, whereas Ni-sintering is favored. Under DBD plasma conditions, electron transfer is guaranteed and the adsorption–desorption of reactants and products is favored.
Coupling experiment and simulation analysis to investigate physical parameters of CO2 methanation in a plasma catalytic hybrid process
Laboratoire Procédés - Plasmas - Microsystèmes - Bo Wang Maria Mikhail Maria Elena Galvez Simeon Cavadias Michael Tatoulian Patrick Da Costa Stéphanie Ognier
First published - 17 9 - https://doi.org/10.1002/ppap.201900261 - 2020
This study focuses on the use of a heterogeneous catalyst Ni/Ce0.58Zr0.42O2 to study the Sabatier reaction in conventional catalytic thermal heating and the dielectric barrier discharge plasma‐catalytic process. Its aim is to study the threshold temperature of the Sabatier reaction in plasma conditions. A set of experiments with different inlet flow rates is carried out in a plasma reactor to investigate the steady‐state temperature of the reaction. To estimate the threshold temperature of the Sabatier reaction more accurately, the temperature difference between the catalytic bed and the external surface of the reactor is calculated and simulated in COMSOL Multiphysics® software. Finally, the threshold temperature of the Sabatier reaction during plasma processing is assumed to be 116°C, based on the experimental data and simulation analysis.

583 publications.