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The impact of frost-damage on the quality and quantity of the secreted antigen-specific IgG repertoire
Laboratoire Macromolécules et Microsystèmes en Biologie et Médecine - Magda Rybczynska, Jean Baudry, Eyer Klaus
ELSEVIER - 38 5337-5342 - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.066 - 2020
Freezing of alum-based vaccines drastically alters their colloidal composition and leads to irreversible cluster formation. The loss of stability is well described, but the impact of frost damage on the functionality of the induced and secreted antibody repertoire has not been studied in detail. We therefore applied our single-cell measurement platform to extract the frequencies of Immunoglobulin G-secreting cells in combination with individual secretion rates and affinities. We showed that, frost-damaged or not, the tested vaccine was able to generate similar frequencies of total and antigen-affine IgG-secreting cells. Additionally, the frost-damaged vaccine stimulated a similar T-cell cytokine secretion pattern when compared to the regularly stored vaccine. However, frost-damaged vaccines induced no efficient affinity maturation and a complete collapse of the affinity distribution was observed. This study unveiled the impact of frost-damage to alum-based vaccines on the induced secreted antibody repertoire, and illustrated the power of functional single-antibody analysis.
The Quantitative Assessment of the Secreted IgG Repertoire after Recall to Evaluate the Quality of Immunizations
Laboratoire Macromolécules et Microsystèmes en Biologie et Médecine - Klaus Eyer, Carlos Castrillon, Guilhem Chenon, Jérôme Bibette, Pierre Bruhns, Andrew D. Griffiths and Jean Baudry
Nat Immunol. - 9 205 - doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2000112 - 2020
One of the major goals of vaccination is to prepare the body to rapidly secrete specific Abs during an infection. Assessment of the vaccine quality is often difficult to perform, as simple measurements like Ab titer only partly correlate with protection. Similarly, these simple measurements are not always sensitive to changes in the preceding immunization scheme. Therefore, we introduce in this paper a new, to our knowledge, method to assay the quality of immunization schemes for mice: shortly after a recall with pure Ag, we analyze the frequencies of IgG-secreting cells (IgG-SCs) in the spleen, as well as for each cells, the Ag affinity of the secreted Abs. We observed that after recall, appearance of the IgG-SCs within the spleen of immunized mice was fast (<24 h) and this early response was free of naive IgG-SCs. We further confirmed that our phenotypic analysis of IgG-SCs after recall strongly correlated with the different employed immunization schemes. Additionally, a phenotypic comparison of IgG-SCs presented in the spleen during immunization or after recall revealed similarities but also significant differences. The developed approach introduced a novel (to our knowledge), quantitative, and functional highly resolved alternative to study the quality of immunizations.
In vitro bone metastasis dwelling in a 3D bioengineered niche.
Laboratoire Macromolécules et Microsystèmes en Biologie et Médecine - Han W, El Botty R, Montaudon E, Malaquin L, Deschaseaux F, Espagnolle N, Marangoni E, Cottu P, Zalcman G, Parrini MC, Assayag F, Sensebe L, Silberzan P, Vincent-Salomon A, Dutertre G, Roman-Roman S, Descroix S, Camonis J
Biomaterials - 269 120624 - DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120624 - 2020
Bone is the most frequent metastasis site for breast cancer. As well as dramatically increasing disease burden, bone metastases are also an indicator of poor prognosis. One of the main challenges in investigating bone metastasis in breast cancer is engineering in vitro models that replicate the features of in vivo bone environments. Such in vitro models ideally enable the biology of the metastatic cells to mimic their in vivo behavior as closely as possible. Here, taking benefit of cutting-edge technologies both in microfabrication and cancer cell biology, we have developed an in vitro breast cancer bone-metastasis model. To do so we first 3D printed a bone scaffold that reproduces the trabecular architecture and that can be conditioned with osteoblast-like cells, a collagen matrix, and mineralized calcium. We thus demonstrated that this device offers an adequate soil to seed primary breast cancer bone metastatic cells. In particular, patient-derived xenografts being considered as a better approach than cell lines to achieve clinically relevant results, we demonstrate the ability of this biomimetic bone niche model to host patient-derived xenografted metastatic breast cancer cells. These patient-derived xenograft cells show a long-term survival in the bone model and maintain their cycling propensity, and exhibit the same modulated drug response as in vivo. This experimental system enables access to the idiosyncratic features of the bone microenvironment and cancer bone metastasis, which has implications for drug testing.
Integration of a soft dielectric composite into a cantilever beam for mechanical energy harvesting, comparison between capacitive and triboelectric transducers
Laboratoire Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Mickaël Pruvost, Wilbert J. Smit, Cécile Monteux, Pablo Del Corro, Isabelle Dufour, Cédric Ayela, Philippe Poulin & Annie Colin
Scientific Reports - 10 20681 - - 2020
Flexible dielectrics that harvest mechanical energy via electrostatic effects are excellent candidates as power sources for wearable electronics or autonomous sensors. The integration of a soft dielectric composite (polydimethylsiloxane PDMS-carbon black CB) into two mechanical energy harvesters is here presented. Both are based on a similar cantilever beam but work on different harvesting principles: variable capacitor and triboelectricity. We show that without an external bias the triboelectric beam harvests a net density power of 0.3 μW/cm2 under a sinusoidal acceleration of 3.9g at 40 Hz. In a variable capacitor configuration, a bias of 0.15 V/μm is required to get the same energy harvesting performance under the same working conditions. As variable capacitors’ harvesting performance are quadratically dependent on the applied bias, increasing the bias allows the system to harvest energy much more efficiently than the triboelectric one. The present results make CB/PDMS composites promising for autonomous portable multifunctional systems and intelligent sensors.
Emulsion Destabilization by Squeeze Flow
Laboratoire Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Riande I Dekker, Antoine Deblais, Krassimir P Velikov , Peter Veenstra , Annie Colin , Hamid Kellay , Willem K Kegel , Daniel Bonn
Langmuir - 36(27) 7795-7800 - doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c00759 - 2020
There is a large debate on the destabilization mechanism of emulsions. We present a simple technique using mechanical compression to destabilize oil-in-water emulsions. Upon compression of the emulsion, the continuous aqueous phase is squeezed out, while the dispersed oil phase progressively deforms from circular to honeycomb-like shapes. The films that separate the oil droplets are observed to thin and break at a critical oil/water ratio, leading to coalescence events. Electrostatic interactions and local droplet rearrangements do not determine film rupture. Instead, the destabilization occurs like an avalanche propagating through the system, starting at areas where the film thickness is smallest.
Density waves in shear-thickening suspensions
Laboratoire Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Guillaume Ovarlez, Anh Vu Nguyen Le2, Wilbert J. Smit2, Abdoulaye Fall
Science Advances - 6 16 - DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay5589 - 2020
Shear thickening corresponds to an increase of the viscosity as a function of the shear rate. It is observed in many concentrated suspensions in nature and industry: water or oil saturated sediments, crystal-bearing magma, fresh concrete, silica suspensions, and cornstarch mixtures. Here, we reveal how shear-thickening suspensions flow, shedding light onto as yet non-understood complex dynamics reported in the literature. When shear thickening is important, we show the existence of density fluctuations that appear as periodic waves moving in the direction of flow and breaking azimuthal symmetry. They come with strong normal stress fluctuations of the same periodicity. The flow includes small areas of normal stresses of the order of tens of kilopascals and areas of normal stresses of the order of hundreds of pascals. These stress inhomogeneities could play an important role in the damage caused by thickening fluids in the industry.
Shear thickening in dense non-Brownian suspensions: Viscous to inertial transition
Laboratoire Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Y. Madraki, A. Oakley, A. Nguyen Le, A. Colin, G. Ovarlez, and S. Hormozi
Journal of Rheology - 64 27 - doi.org/10.1122/1.5129680 - 2020
We present an experimental study on the viscous to inertial mode of shear thickening in dense non-Brownian suspensions. We design a model suspension consisting of monosized spherical particles within a Newtonian suspending fluid. We develop a protocol for the rheological characterization of dense suspensions using the conventional rheometry technique. Our results provide constitutive laws for suspensions with solid volume fractions close to jamming when both viscous and inertial effects at the particle scale are present. We perform atomic force microscopy to measure forces between the particles immersed in the suspending fluid and show that our system of study corresponds to the frictionless regime of dense suspensions in which viscous and collisional forces dissipate the energy. Finally, we show that the proposed empirical constitutive laws, when approaching jamming, predict the dynamics of dense suspensions in a transient boundary driven flow.
Impact of the Wetting Length on Flexible Blade Spreading
Laboratoire Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Marion Krapez, Anaïs Gauthier, Hamid Kellay, Jean-Baptiste Boitte, Odile Aubrun, Jean-François Joanny, and Annie Colin
Phys. Rev. Lett. - 125 254506 - DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103 - 2020
We study the spreading of a Newtonian fluid by a deformable blade, a common industrial problem, characteristic of elastohydrodynamic situations. Here, we consider the case of a finite reservoir of liquid, emptying as the liquid is spread. We evidence the role of a central variable: the wetting length , which sets a boundary between the wet and dry parts of the blade. We show that the deposited film thickness
depends quadratically with. We study this problem experimentally and numerically by integration of the elastohydrodynamic equations, and finally propose a scaling law model to explain how influences the spreading dynamics.
A new pressure sensor array for local normal stress measurement in complex fluids
Laboratoire Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Gauthier Anaïs, Mickael Pruvost, Gamache Olivier, Annie Colin
- - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344603305 - 2020
A new pressure sensor array, positioned on the bottom plate of a standard torsional rheometer is presented. It is built from a unique piezo-capacitive polymeric foam, and consists of twenty-five capacitive pressure sensors (of surface 4.5$\times$4.5 mm$^2$ each) built together in a 5$\times$5 regular array. The sensor array is used to obtain a local mapping of the normal stresses in complex fluids, which dramatically extends the capability of the rheometer. We demonstrate this with three examples. First, the pressure profile is reconstructed in a polymer solution, which enable the simultaneous measurement of the first and the second normal stress differences $N_1$ and $N_2$, with a precision of 2 Pa. In a second part, we show that negative normal stresses can also be detected. Finally, we focus on the normal stress fluctuations that extend both spatially and temporally ina shear-thickening suspension of cornstarch particles. We evidence the presence of local a unique heterogeneity rotating very regularly. In addition to their low-cost and high versatility, the sensors show here their potential to finely characterize the normal stresses in viscosimetric flows
Microfluidics Mediated Production of Foams for Biomedical Applications
Laboratoire Microfluidique MEMS et nanostructures - Ilham Maimouni Cesare M. Cejas ,Janine Cossy ,Patrick Tabeling and Maria Russo
Micromachines - 11(1) 83 - doi.org/10.3390/mi11010083 - 2020
Within the last decade, there has been increasing interest in liquid and solid foams for several industrial uses. In the biomedical field, liquid foams can be used as delivery systems for dermatological treatments, for example, whereas solid foams are frequently used as scaffolds for tissue engineering and drug screening. Most of the foam functionalities are largely correlated to their mechanical properties and their structure, especially bubble/pore size, shape, and interconnectivity. However, the majority of conventional foaming fabrication techniques lack pore size control which can induce important inhomogeneities in the foams and subsequently decrease their performance. In this perspective, new advanced technologies have been introduced, such as microfluidics, which offers a highly controlled production, allowing for design customization of both liquid foams and solid foams obtained through liquid-templating. This short review explores both the fabrication and the characterization of foams, with a focus on solid polymer foams, and sheds the light on how microfluidics can overcome some existing limitations, playing a crucial role in their production for biomedical applications, especially as scaffolds in tissue engineering.
Stable liquid foams from a new polyfluorinated surfactant
Laboratoire Microfluidique MEMS et nanostructures - Maria Russo, Zacharias Amara, Johan Fenneteau, Pauline Chaumont-Olive, Ilham Maimouni, Patrick Tabeling and Janine Cossy
Chem. Comm. - 56 5807-5810 - doi.org/10.1039/D0CC02182B - 2020
Liquid foams exhibiting long-term stability are a key-challenge in material design. Based on this perspective, new pyridinium polyfluorinated surfactants were synthesized from simple building blocks enabling unusually stable liquid foams. While the batch-generated foams were used for qualitative foaming evaluation, microfluidics allowed a quantitative insight into the aging effects of monodisperse foams.
Ultrafast photomechanical transduction through thermophoretic implosion
Laboratoire Micromégas - N. Kavokine, S. Zou, R. Liu, H. Zhong, A. Nigues, B. Zou and L. Bocquet
Nature Communications - 11(1) 50 - doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13912-w - 2020
Since the historical experiments of Crookes, the direct manipulation of matter by light has been both a challenge and a source of scientific debate. Here we show that laser illumination allows to displace a vial of nanoparticle solution over centimetre-scale distances. Cantilever-based force measurements show that the movement is due to millisecond-long force spikes, which are synchronised with a sound emission. We observe that the nanoparticles undergo negative thermophoresis, and ultrafast imaging reveals that the force spikes are followed by the explosive growth of a bubble in the solution. We propose a mechanism accounting for the propulsion based on a thermophoretic instability of the nanoparticle cloud, analogous to the Jeans’s instability that occurs in gravitational systems. Our experiments demonstrate a new type of laser propulsion and a remarkably violent actuation of soft matter, reminiscent of the strategy used by certain plants to propel their spores.
Fluids at the Nanoscale: From Continuum to Subcontinuum Transport
Laboratoire Micromégas - Nikita Kavokine, Roland R. Netz, and Lydéric Bocquet
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics - 53 50 - https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-fluid-071320-095958 - 2020
Nanofluidics has firmly established itself as a new field in fluid mechanics, as novel properties have been shown to emerge in fluids at the nanometric scale. Thanks to recent developments in fabrication technology, artificial nanofluidic systems are now being designed at the scale of biological nanopores. This ultimate step in scale reduction has pushed the development of new experimental techniques and new theoretical tools, bridging fluid mechanics, statistical mechanics, and condensed matter physics. This review is intended as a toolbox for fluids at the nanometer scale. After presenting the basic equations that govern fluid behavior in the continuum limit, we show how these equations break down and new properties emerge in molecular-scale confinement. A large number of analytical estimates and physical arguments are given to organize the results and different limits.
Mechanically activated ionic transport across single-digit carbon nanotubes
Laboratoire Micromégas - Alice Marcotte, Timothée Mouterde, Antoine Niguès, Alessandro Siria & Lydéric Bocquet
Nature Materials - 19 1057–1061 - https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-fluid-071320-095958 - 2020
Fluid and ionic transport at the nanoscale has recently demonstrated a wealth of exotic behaviours1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14. However, artificial nanofluidic devices15,16,17,18 are still far from demonstrating the advanced functionalities existing in biological systems, such as electrically and mechanically activated transport19,20. Here, we focus on ionic transport through 2-nm-radius individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes under the combination of mechanical and electrical forcings. Our findings evidence mechanically activated ionic transport in the form of an ionic conductance that depends quadratically on the applied pressure. Our theoretical study relates this behaviour to the complex interplay between electrical and mechanical drivings, and shows that the superlubricity of the carbon nanotubes4,5,6,7,8,21 is a prerequisite to attaining mechanically activated transport. The pressure sensitivity shares similarities with the response of biological mechanosensitive ion channels19,20, but observed here in an artificial system. This paves the way to build new active nanofluidic functionalities inspired by complex biological machinery
Studying polymer diffusiophoresis with non-equilibrium molecular dynamics
Laboratoire Micromégas - S. Ramírez-Hinestrosa, H. Yoshida, L. Bocquet, and D. Frenkel
Chem. Phys - 152 164901 - https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0007235 - 2020
We report a numerical study of the diffusiophoresis of short polymers using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. More precisely, we consider polymer chains in a fluid containing a solute that has a concentration gradient and examine the variation of the induced diffusiophoretic velocity of the polymer chains as the interaction between the monomer and the solute is varied. We find that there is a non-monotonic relation between the diffusiophoretic mobility and the strength of the monomer–solute interaction. In addition, we find a weak dependence of the mobility on the length of the polymer chain, which shows clear difference from the diffusiophoresis of a solid particle. Interestingly, the hydrodynamic flow through the polymer is much less screened than for pressure driven flows.
Nanofluidics coming of age
Laboratoire Micromégas - Lydéric Bocquet
Nature Materials - 19 254–256 - https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-0625-8 - 2020
This is a turning point for nanofluidics. Recent progress allows envisioning both fundamental discoveries for the transport of fluids at the ultimate scales, and disruptive technologies for the water–energy nexus
Local and global force balance for diffusiophoretic transport
Laboratoire Micromégas - S. Marbach , H. Yoshida and L. Bocquet
J. Fluid Mech - 892 - doi:10.1017/jfm.2020.137 - 2020
Electro- and diffusio-phoresis of particles correspond respectively to the transport of particles under electric field and solute concentration gradients. Such interfacial transport phenomena take their origin in a diffuse layer close to the particle surface, and the motion of the particle is force free. In the case of electrophoresis, it is further expected that the stress acting on the moving particle vanishes locally as a consequence of local electroneutrality. But the argument does not apply to diffusiophoresis, which takes its origin in solute concentration gradients. In this paper we investigate further the local and global force balance on a particle undergoing diffusiophoresis. We calculate the local tension applied on the particle surface and show that, counter-intuitively, the local force on the particle does not vanish for diffusiophoresis, in spite of the global force being zero, as expected. Incidentally, our description allows us to clarify the osmotic balance in diffusiophoresis, which has been a source of debate in recent years. We explore various cases, including hard and soft interactions, as well as porous particles, and provide analytic predictions for the local force balance in these various systems. The existence of local stresses may induce deformation of soft particles undergoing diffusiophoresis, hence suggesting applications in terms of particle separation based on capillary diffusiophoresis.
Liquid-liquid coffee-ring effect.
Laboratoire Nanobioscience et Microsystèmes group - Vincent Poulichet,Mathieu Morel,Sergii Rudiuk,Damien Baigl
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science - - DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2020.03.094 - 2020
The so-called coffee-ring effect (CRE) is extraordinarily common, problematic in industry and attractively puzzling for researchers, with the accepted rule that it requires two key-ingredients: solvent evaporation and contact line pinning. Here, we demonstrate that the CRE also occurs when the solvent of a pinned sessile drop transfers into another liquid, without involving any evaporation. We show that it shares all characteristic features of the evaporative CRE: solvent transfer-driven transport of solutes to the contact line, ring-shaped deposit, closely-packed particle organization at the contact line, and size-dependent particle sorting. We thus suggest expanding the definition of the coffee-ring effect to any pinned drop having its solvent transferring to an outer medium where the drop compounds cannot be dissolved.
Liquid-liquid coffee-ring effect
Laboratoire Nanobioscience et Microsystèmes group - Vincent Poulichet,Mathieu Morel,Sergii Rudiuk,Damien Baigl
X-MOL - - DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2020.03.094 - 2020
The so-called coffee-ring effect (CRE) is extraordinarily common, problematic in industry and attractively puzzling for researchers, with the accepted rule that it requires two key-ingredients: solvent evaporation and contact line pinning. Here, we demonstrate that the CRE also occurs when the solvent of a pinned sessile drop transfers into another liquid, without involving any evaporation. We show that it shares all characteristic features of the evaporative CRE: solvent transfer-driven transport of solutes to the contact line, ring-shaped deposit, closely-packed particle organization at the contact line, and size-dependent particle sorting. We thus suggest expanding the definition of the coffee-ring effect to any pinned drop having its solvent transferring to an outer medium where the drop compounds cannot be dissolved.
Self-Propelled Water Drops on Bare Glass Substrates in Air: Fast, Controllable, and Easy Transport Powered by Surfactants
Laboratoire Nanobioscience et Microsystèmes group - Pauline E. Galy, Sergii Rudiuk, Mathieu Morel, and Damien Baigl
Langmuir - 36, 25 6916–6923 - doi : 10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b03727 - 2020
Self-propelled drops are capable of motion without external intervention. As such, they constitute attractive entities for fundamental investigations in active soft matter, hydrodynamics, and surface sciences, as well as promising systems for autonomous microfluidic operations. In contrast with most of the examples relying on organic drops or specifically treated substrates, here we describe the first system of nonreactive water drops in air that can propel themselves on a commercially available ordinary glass substrate that was used as received. This is achieved by exploiting the dynamic adsorption behavior of common n-alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (CnTAB) surfactants added to the drop. We precisely analyze the drop motion for a broad series of surfactants carrying n = 6 to 18 carbon atoms in their tail and establish how the motion characteristics (speed, probability of motion) are tuned by both the hydrophobicity and the concentration of the surfactant. We show that motion occurs regardless of the n value but only in a specific concentration range with a maximum speed at around one tenth of the critical micelle concentration (CMC/10) for most of the tested surfactants. Surfactants of intermediate hydrophobicity are shown to be the best candidates to power drops that can move at a high speed (1–10 cm s–1), the optimal performance being reached with [C12TAB] = 800 μM. We propose a mechanism where the motion originates from the anisotropic wettability of the substrate created by the electrostatic adsorption of surfactants beneath the moving drop. Simply drawing lines with a marker pen allows us to create guiding paths for drop motion and to achieve operations such as complex trajectory control, programmed drop fusion, drop refilling, as well as drop moving vertically against gravity. This work revisits the role of surfactants in dynamic wetting and self-propelled motion as well as brings an original strategy to build the future of microfluidics with lower-cost, simpler, and more autonomous portable devices that could be made available to everyone and everywhere.

628 publications.