Université PSL

Publications

RECHERCHER

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Nanorheology of Interfacial Water during Ice Gliding
Laboratoire Micromégas - L. Canale, J. Comtet, A. Niguès, C. Cohen, C. Clanet, A. Siria, and L. Bocquet
Phys. Rev. X - 9 041025 - doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevX.9.041025 - 2019
The slipperiness of ice is an everyday-life phenomenon, which, surprisingly, remains controversial despite a long scientific history. The very small friction measured on ice is classically attributed to the presence of a thin self-lubricating film of meltwater between the slider and the ice. But while the macroscale friction behavior of ice and snow has been widely investigated, very little is known about the interfacial water film and its mechanical properties. In this work, we develop a stroke-probe force measurement technique to uncover the microscopic mechanisms underlying ice lubrication. We simultaneously measure the shear friction of a bead on ice and quantify the in situ mechanical properties of the interfacial film, as well as its thickness, under various regimes of speed and temperature. In contrast with standard views, meltwater is found to exhibit a complex viscoelastic rheology, with a viscosity up to 2 orders of magnitude larger than pristine water. The unconventional rheology of meltwater provides a new, consistent, rationale for ice slipperiness. Hydrophobic coatings are furthermore shown to strongly reduce friction due to a surprising change in the local viscosity, providing an unexpected explanation for waxing effects in winter sports. Beyond ice friction, our results suggest new avenues towards self-healing lubricants to achieve ultralow friction.
Adsorption Kinetics in Open Nanopores as a Source of Low-Frequency Noise
Laboratoire Micromégas - Simon Gravelle, Roland R. Netz, and Lydéric Bocquet
Nano Lett. - 19(10) 7265-7272 - doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b02858 - 2019
Ionic current measurements through solid-state nanopores consistently show a power spectral density that scales as 1/f α at low frequency f, with an exponent α ∼ 0.5–1.5, but strikingly, the physical origin of this behavior remains elusive. Here, we perform simulations of particles reversibly adsorbing at the surface of a nanopore and show that the fluctuations in the number of adsorbed particles exhibit low-frequency pink noise. We furthermore propose theoretical modeling for the time-dependent adsorption of particles on the nanopore surface for various geometries, which predicts a frequency spectrum in very good agreement with the simulation results. Altogether, our results highlight that the low-frequency noise takes its origin in the reversible adsorption of ions at the pore surface combined with the long-lasting excursions of the ions in the reservoirs. The scaling regime of the power spectrum extends down to a cutoff frequency which is far smaller than simple diffusion estimates. Using realistic values for the pore dimensions and the adsorption–desorption kinetics, this predicts the observation of pink noise for frequencies down to the hertz for a typical solid-state nanopore, in good agreement with experiments.
Beyond the Tradeoff: Dynamic Selectivity in Ionic Transport and Current Selectivity
Laboratoire Micromégas - Anthony R. Poggioli, Alessandro Siria, Lyderic Bocquet
J. Phys. Chem. B. - 123(5) 1171--1185 - DOI:10.1021/acs.jpcb.8b11202 - 2019
Traditionally, ion-selectivity in nanopores and nanoporous membranes is understood to be a consequence of Debye overlap, in which the Debye screening length is comparable to the nanopore radius somewhere along the length of the nanopore(s). This criterion sets a significant limitation on the size of ion-selective nanopores, as the Debye length is on the order of 1 - 10 nm for typical ionic concentrations. However, the analytical results we present here demonstrate that surface conductance generates a dynamical selectivity in ion transport, and this selectivity is controlled by so-called Dukhin, rather than Debye, overlap. The Dukhin length, defined as the ratio of surface to bulk conductance, reaches values of hundreds of nanometers for typical surface charge densities and ionic concentrations, suggesting the possibility of designing large-nanopore (10 - 100 nm), high-conductance membranes exhibiting significant ion-selectivity. Such membranes would have potentially dramatic implications for the efficiency of osmotic energy conversion and separation techniques. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this mechanism of dynamic selectivity leads ultimately to the rectification of ionic current, rationalizing previous studies showing that Debye overlap is not a necessary condition for the occurrence of rectifying behavior in nanopores.
Stress field inside the bath determines dip coating with yield-stress fluids in cylindrical geometry
Laboratoire MIE - Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Wilbert J Smit, Christophe Kusina, Jean-François Joanny, Annie Colin
Phys. Rev. Lett. - 123(14) 148002 - - 2019
We study experimentally and theoretically the thickness of the coating obtained by pulling out a rod from a reservoir of yield-stress fluid. Opposite to Newtonian fluids, the coating thickness for a fluid of large enough yield stress is determined solely by the flow inside the reservoir and not by the flow inside the meniscus. The stress field inside the reservoir determines the thickness of the coating layer. The thickness is observed to increase nonlinearly with the sizes of the rod and of the reservoir. We develop a theoretical framework that describes this behavior and allows us to precisely predict the coating thickness.
Chasing Aqueous Biphasic Systems from Simple Salts by Exploring the LiTFSI/LiCl/H2O Phase Diagram
Laboratoire MIE - Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Nicolas Dubouis, Chanbum Park, Michael Deschamps, Soufiane Abdelghani-Idrissi, Matej Kanduč, Annie Colin, Mathieu Salanne, Joachim Dzubiella, Alexis Grimaud, Benjamin Rotenberg
ACS Central Science - 5 640-643 - doi.org/10.1021/acscentsci.8b00955 - 2019
Aqueous biphasic systems (ABSs), in which two aqueous phases with different compositions coexist as separate liquids, were first reported more than a century ago with polymer solutions. Recent observations of ABS forming from concentrated mixtures of inorganic salts and ionic liquids raise the fundamental question of how “different” the components of such mixtures should be for a liquid–liquid phase separation to occur. Here we show that even two monovalent salts sharing a common cation (lithium) but with different anions, namely, LiCl and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), may result in the formation of ABSs over a wide range of compositions at room temperature. Using a combination of experimental techniques and molecular simulations, we analyze the coexistence diagram and the mechanism driving the phase separation, arising from the different anion sizes. The understanding and …
Inkjet Printing of Latex-Based High-Energy Microcapacitors
Laboratoire MIE - Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Fernando José Torres-Canas Jinkai Yuan Isabelle Ly Wilfrid Neri
Advanced Functional Materials - 29(31) 1901884 - DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201901884 - 2019
Micro-energy storage devices are appealing, and highly demanded for diverse miniaturized electronic devices, ranging from microelectromechanical system, robotics, to sensing microsystems and wearable electronics. However, making high-energy microcapacitors with currently available printing technologies remains challenging. Herein, we show the possibility to use latex polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as aqueous ink for making dielectric capacitors on the microscale. The dielectric properties of printed microcapacitors can be optimized based on a novel approach, i.e., mixing PVDF latex with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to realize dielectric organic nanocomposites. The PVA prevents the coalescence of PVDF nanoparticles and serves as a continuous matrix phase with high dielectric breakdown strength. While the well-dispersed PVDF nanoparticles serve as highly polarizable and isolated domains, providing large electric displacement under high fields. Consequently, a high discharged energy density of 12 Jcm-3 is achieved at 550 MVm-1. These printed microcapacitors demonstrate mechanical robustness and dielectric stability over time.
Absence of giant dielectric permittivity in graphene oxide materials
Laboratoire MIE - Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Alfonso, M. Yuan, J. Tardani, F. Neri, W. Colin, A.; Poulin, P.
Journal of Physics Materials - 2(4) 045002 - DOI:10.1088/2515-7639/ab2666 - 2019
Graphene oxide (GO) is considered as a promising component for electronics because of its unique anisotropy, easy processing and sometimes claimed giant permittivity. The latter would arise from an enhanced electronic polarizability due to the presence of functional groups at the surface and edge of GO flakes. As a matter of fact, a number of publications have reported a very large permittivity of GO materials. Nevertheless, the reported values for the intrinsic relative permittivity vary significantly from a few units to several millions. Such variability raises a critical question on the actual and intrinsic permittivity of GO, and on difficulties of measurements due to the polarization of the electrodes. We presently report impedance spectroscopy characterizations of GO solutions with different solvents. We find very large capacitance at low frequencies, in agreement with previous reports. However, we also show that these results can be interpreted without considering a giant permittivity of GO. Actually, a simple equivalent circuit model allows us to confirm that GO does not have a giant permittivity. We conclude that GO can be used as an electrolyte for supercapacitors, or as a precursor for electrically conductive graphene-based materials, but not as an efficient additive to raise the permittivity of solvents or composites for electronics and energy storage applications.
A new way to measure viscosity in droplet-based microfluidics for high throughput analysis
Laboratoire MIE - Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Estelle André, Nicolas Pannacci, Christine Dalmazzone, Annie Colin
Soft Matter - 15 504-514 - https://doi.org/10.1039/C8SM02372G - 2019
In this work, we propose a new way to measure the viscosity of samples in a microfluidic device. By analysing the shape of droplets after an expansion, we can measure the viscosity of the phase inside the droplet knowing the surface tension between the two liquids, the flow rate, the geometry of the channel and the viscosity of the continuous phase. This work paves the way for future high throughput studies in the framework of digital microfluidics.
Harvesting mechanical energy by means of MEMS-based electrostrictive microgenerators
Laboratoire MIE - Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - H. Nesser; H. Debéda; J. Yuan; A. Colin; P. Poulin; I. Dufour; C. Ayela
2019 IEEE Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean (RADIO) - 19299918 - DOI: 10.23919/RADIO46463.2019.8968880 - 2019
Recent advances in the field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have generated great interest in the substitution of inorganic microcantilevers by organic ones, due to their low cost, high flexibility and a simplified fabrication by means of printing methods. Here, we present the integration of electrostrictive nanocomposites into organic microcantilever resonators specifically designed for mechanical energy harvesting from ambient vibrations. Strain sensitive nanocomposite materials composed of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) dispersed in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are integrated into all-organic MEMS by means of an innovative low-cost and environment friendly process by combining printing techniques and xurography. The fabricated microcantilevers are promising candidates for mechanical energy harvesting as at their first resonant mode (15 Hz), they generate an electrical power density of 6 μW/cm 3 .
Polymeric foams for flexible and highly sensitive low-pressure capacitive sensors
Laboratoire MIE - Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Mickaël Pruvost, Wilbert J Smit, Cécile Monteux, Philippe Poulin, Annie Colin
npj Flexible Electronics - 3 7 - doi.org/10.1038/s41528-019-0052-6 - 2019
Flexible low-pressure sensors ( <10 kPa) are required in areas as diverse as blood-pressure monitoring, human–computer interactions, robotics, and object detection. For applications, it is essential that these sensors combine flexibility, high sensitivity, robustness, and low production costs. Previous works involve surface micro-patterning, electronic amplification (OFET), and hydrogels. However, these solutions are limited as they involve complex processes, large bias voltages, large energy consumption, or are sensitive to evaporation. Here, we report a major advance to solve the challenge of scalable, efficient and robust e-skin. We present an unconventional capacitive sensor based on composite foam materials filled with conductive carbon black particles. Owing to the elastic buckling of the foam pores, the sensitivity exceeds 35 kPa−1 for pressure <0.2 kPa. These performances are one order of magnitude higher than the ones previously reported. These materials are low-cost, easy to prepare, and display high capacitance values, which are easy to measure using low-cost electronics. These materials pave the road for the implementation of e-skin in commercialized applications.
Inkjet Printing of Latex‐Based High‐Energy Microcapacitors
Laboratoire MIE - Matériaux Innovants pour l'Energie - Fernando Torres‐Canas Jinkai Yuan Isabelle Ly Wilfrid Neri Annie Colin Philippe Poulin
First published - 29(31) 1901884 - doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201901884 - 2019
Microenergy storage devices are appealing and highly demanded for diverse miniaturized electronic devices, ranging from microelectromechanical system, robotics, to sensing microsystems and wearable electronics. However, making high‐energy microcapacitors with currently available printing technologies remains challenging. Herein, the possibility to use latex polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as aqueous ink for making dielectric capacitors at the microscale is shown. The dielectric properties of printed microcapacitors can be optimized based on a novel approach, i.e., mixing PVDF latex with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to realize dielectric organic nanocomposites. The PVA prevents the coalescence of PVDF nanoparticles and serves as a continuous matrix phase with high dielectric breakdown strength. While the well‐dispersed PVDF nanoparticles serve as highly polarizable and isolated domains, providing large electric displacement under high fields. Consequently, a high discharged energy density of 12 J cm−3 is achieved at 550 MV m−1. These printed microcapacitors demonstrate mechanical robustness and dielectric stability over time.
Parallelized DNA tethered bead measurements to scrutinize DNA mechanical structure
Laboratoire Physique des biomolécules - Allemand JF, Tardin C, Salomé L.
Nat. Methods - 1;169 46-56 - doi: 10.1016/j.ymeth.2019.07.020. - 2019
Tethering beads to DNA offers a panel of single molecule techniques for the refined analysis of the conformational dynamics of DNA and the elucidation of the mechanisms of enzyme activity. Recent developments include the massive parallelization of these techniques achieved by the fabrication of dedicated nanoarrays by soft nanolithography. We focus here on two of these techniques: the Tethered Particle motion and Magnetic Tweezers allowing analysis of the behavior of individual DNA molecules in the absence of force and under the application of a force and/or a torque, respectively. We introduce the experimental protocols for the parallelization and discuss the benefits already gained, and to come, for these single molecule investigations.
Anisotropic cellular forces support mechanical integrity of the Stratum Corneum barrier
Laboratoire Physique des biomolécules - Guo S, Domanov Y, Donovan M, Ducos B, Pomeau Y, Gourier C, Perez E, Luengo GS.
Chem. Mater - 92 45231 - doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2018.12.027 - 2019
The protective function of biological surfaces that are exposed to the exterior of living organisms is the result of a complex arrangement and interaction of cellular components. This is the case for the most external cornified layer of skin, the stratum corneum (SC). This layer is made of corneocytes, the elementary 'flat bricks' that are held together through adhesive junctions. Despite the well-known protective role of the SC under high mechanical stresses and rapid cell turnover, the subtleties regarding the adhesion and mechanical interaction among the individual corneocytes are still poorly known. Here, we explore the adhesion of single corneocytes at different depths of the SC, by pulling them using glass microcantilevers, and measuring their detachment forces. We measured their interplanar adhesion between SC layers, and their peripheral adhesion among cells within a SC layer. Both adhesions increased considerably with depth. At the SC surface, with respect to adhesion, the corneocyte population exhibited a strong heterogeneity, where detachment forces differed by more than one order of magnitude for corneocytes located side by side. The measured detachment forces indicated that in the upper-middle layers of SC, the peripheral adhesion was stronger than the interplanar one. We conclude that the stronger peripheral adhesion of corneocytes in the SC favors an efficient barrier which would be able to resist strong stresses.
Anisotropic cellular forces support mechanical integrity of the Stratum Corneum barrier
Laboratoire Physique des biomolécules - Guo S, Domanov Y, Donovan M, Ducos B, Pomeau Y, Gourier C, Perez E, Luengo GS.
Chem. Mater - 92 45231 - doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2018.12.027 - 2019
The protective function of biological surfaces that are exposed to the exterior of living organisms is the result of a complex arrangement and interaction of cellular components. This is the case for the most external cornified layer of skin, the stratum corneum (SC). This layer is made of corneocytes, the elementary 'flat bricks' that are held together through adhesive junctions. Despite the well-known protective role of the SC under high mechanical stresses and rapid cell turnover, the subtleties regarding the adhesion and mechanical interaction among the individual corneocytes are still poorly known. Here, we explore the adhesion of single corneocytes at different depths of the SC, by pulling them using glass microcantilevers, and measuring their detachment forces. We measured their interplanar adhesion between SC layers, and their peripheral adhesion among cells within a SC layer. Both adhesions increased considerably with depth. At the SC surface, with respect to adhesion, the corneocyte population exhibited a strong heterogeneity, where detachment forces differed by more than one order of magnitude for corneocytes located side by side. The measured detachment forces indicated that in the upper-middle layers of SC, the peripheral adhesion was stronger than the interplanar one. We conclude that the stronger peripheral adhesion of corneocytes in the SC favors an efficient barrier which would be able to resist strong stresses.
PICH and TOP3A cooperate to induce positive DNA supercoiling
Laboratoire Physique des biomolécules - Anna Hélène Bizard, Jean-Francois Allemand, Tue Hassenkam, Manikandan Paramasivam
Nature - 26(4) 1 - DOI: 10.1038/s41594-019-0201-6 - 2019
All known eukaryotic topoisomerases are only able to relieve torsional stress in DNA. Nevertheless, it has been proposed that the introduction of positive DNA supercoiling is required for efficient sister-chromatid disjunction by Topoisomerase 2a during mitosis. Here we identify a eukaryotic enzymatic activity that introduces torsional stress into DNA. We show that the human Plk1-interacting checkpoint helicase (PICH) and Topoisomerase 3a proteins combine to create an extraordinarily high density of positive DNA supercoiling. This activity, which is analogous to that of a reverse-gyrase, is apparently driven by the ability of PICH to progressively extrude hypernegatively supercoiled DNA loops that are relaxed by Topoisomerase 3a. We propose that this positive supercoiling provides an optimal substrate for the rapid disjunction of sister centromeres by Topoisomerase 2a at the onset of anaphase in eukaryotic cells.
Mechanistic characterization of the DEAD-box RNA helicase Ded1 from yeast as revealed by a novel technique using single-molecule magnetic tweezers
Laboratoire Physique des biomolécules - Saurabh Raj, Debjani Bagchi, Jessica Valle Orero, Josette Banroques, N Kyle Tanner, Vincent Croquette
Nucleic Acids Res. - 47(7) 3699–3710 - doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkz057 - 2019
DEAD-box helicases are involved in all steps of RNA metabolism. They are ATP-dependent RNA binding proteins and RNA-dependent ATPases. They can displace short duplexes, but they lack processivity. Their mechanism and functioning are not clearly understood; classical or bulk biochemical assays are not sufficient to answer these questions. Single-molecule techniques provide useful tools, but they are limited in cases where the proteins are nonprocessive and give weak signals. We present here a new, magnetic-tweezers-based, single-molecule assay that is simple and that can sensitively measure the displacement time of a small, hybridized, RNA oligonucleotide. Tens of molecules can be analyzed at the same time. Comparing the displacement times with and without a helicase gives insights into the enzymatic activity of the protein. We used this assay to study yeast Ded1, which is orthologous to human DDX3. Although Ded1 acts on a variety of substrates, we find that Ded1 requires an RNA substrate for its ATP-dependent unwinding activity and that ATP hydrolysis is needed to see this activity. Further, we find that only intramolecular single-stranded RNA extensions enhance this activity. We propose a model where ATP-bound Ded1 stabilizes partially unwound duplexes and where multiple binding events may be needed to see displacement.
Longitudinal Analyses of Blood Transcriptome During Conversion to Psychosis
Laboratoire Physique des biomolécules - Saurabh Raj, Debjani Bagchi, Jessica Valle Orero, Josette Banroques, N Kyle Tanner, Vincent Croquette
Schizophr Bull - 45(1) 247-255 - doi: 10.1093/schbul/sby009 - 2019
The biological processes associated with the onset of schizophrenia remain largely unknown. Current hypotheses favor gene × environment interactions as supported by our recent report about DNA methylation changes during the onset of psychosis. Here, we conducted the first longitudinal transcriptomic analysis of blood samples from 31 at-risk individuals who later converted to psychosis and 63 at-risk individuals who did not. Individuals were followed for a maximum of 1 year. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of follow-up and individuals served as their own controls. Differentially expressed genes between the 2 groups were identified using the RNA sequencing of an initial discovery subgroup (n = 15 individuals). The most promising results were replicated using high-throughput real-time qPCR in the whole cohort (n = 94 individuals). We identified longitudinal changes in 4 brain-expressed genes based on RNAseq analysis. One of these genes (CPT1A) was replicated in the whole cohort. The previously observed hypermethylation in NRP1 and GSTM5 during the onset of psychosis correlated with a decrease in corresponding gene expression. RNA sequencing also identified 2 co-expression networks that were impaired after conversion compared with baseline-the Wnt pathway including AKT1, CPT1A and semaphorins, and the Toll-like receptor pathway, related to innate immunity. This longitudinal study of transcriptomic changes in individuals with at-risk mental state revealed alterations during conversion to psychosis in pathways and genes relevant to schizophrenia. These results may be a first step toward better understanding psychosis onset. They may also help to identify new biomarkers and targets for disease-modifying therapeutic strategies
Longitudinal Analyses of Blood Transcriptome During Conversion to Psychosis
Laboratoire Physique des biomolécules - Saurabh Raj, Debjani Bagchi, Jessica Valle Orero, Josette Banroques, N Kyle Tanner, Vincent Croquette
Schizophr Bull - 45(1) 247-255 - doi: 10.1093/schbul/sby009 - 2019
The biological processes associated with the onset of schizophrenia remain largely unknown. Current hypotheses favor gene × environment interactions as supported by our recent report about DNA methylation changes during the onset of psychosis. Here, we conducted the first longitudinal transcriptomic analysis of blood samples from 31 at-risk individuals who later converted to psychosis and 63 at-risk individuals who did not. Individuals were followed for a maximum of 1 year. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of follow-up and individuals served as their own controls. Differentially expressed genes between the 2 groups were identified using the RNA sequencing of an initial discovery subgroup (n = 15 individuals). The most promising results were replicated using high-throughput real-time qPCR in the whole cohort (n = 94 individuals). We identified longitudinal changes in 4 brain-expressed genes based on RNAseq analysis. One of these genes (CPT1A) was replicated in the whole cohort. The previously observed hypermethylation in NRP1 and GSTM5 during the onset of psychosis correlated with a decrease in corresponding gene expression. RNA sequencing also identified 2 co-expression networks that were impaired after conversion compared with baseline-the Wnt pathway including AKT1, CPT1A and semaphorins, and the Toll-like receptor pathway, related to innate immunity. This longitudinal study of transcriptomic changes in individuals with at-risk mental state revealed alterations during conversion to psychosis in pathways and genes relevant to schizophrenia. These results may be a first step toward better understanding psychosis onset. They may also help to identify new biomarkers and targets for disease-modifying therapeutic strategies
Optical control of protein activity and gene expression by photoactivation of caged cyclofen
Laboratoire Physique des biomolécules - Hamouri F, Zhang W, Aujard I, Le Saux T, Ducos B, Vriz S, Jullien L, Bensimon D
Methods Enzymol - 624 44927 - doi: 10.1016/bs.mie.2019.04.009 - 2019
The use of light to control the expression of genes and the activity of proteins is a rapidly expanding field. While many of these approaches use a fusion between a light activatable protein and the protein of interest to control the activity of the latter, it is also possible to control the activity of a protein by uncaging a specific ligand. In that context, controlling the activation of a protein fused to the modified estrogen receptor (ERT) by uncaging its ligand cyclofen-OH has emerged as a generic and versatile method to control the activation of proteins quantitatively, quickly and locally in a live organism. Here, we present the experimental details behind this approach.
On-Chip Quantitative Measurement of Mechanical Stresses During Cell Migration with Emulsion Droplets
Laboratoire Pôle Microfluidique - D. Molino, S. Quignard, C. Gruget, F. Pincet, Y. Chen, M. Piel & J. Fattaccioli
Scientific Reports - 6 29113 - DOI: 10.1038/srep29113 - 2019
The ability of immune cells to migrate within narrow and crowded spaces is a critical feature involved in various physiological processes from immune response to metastasis. Several in-vitro techniques have been developed so far to study the behaviour of migrating cells, the most recent being based on the fabrication of microchannels within which cells move. To address the question of the mechanical stress a cell is able to produce during the encounter of an obstacle while migrating, we developed a hybrid microchip made of parallel PDMS channels in which oil droplets are sparsely distributed and serve as deformable obstacles. We thus show that cells strongly deform droplets while passing them. Then, we show that the microdevice can be used to study the influence of drugs on migration at the population level. Finally, we describe a quantitative analysis method of the droplet deformation that allows measuring in real-time the mechanical stress exerted by a single cell. The method presented herein thus constitutes a powerful analytical tool for cell migration studies under confinement.

515 publications.