Université PSL



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RecG and UvsW catalyse robust DNA rewinding critical for stalled DNA replication fork rescue
Maria Manosas, Senthil K. Perumal, Piero R. Bianco, Felix Ritort, Stephen J. Benkovic and Vincent Croquette
Nature Communications - -4 2368 - DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3368 - 2013
Helicases that both unwind and rewind DNA have central roles in DNA repair and genetic recombination. In contrast to unwinding, DNA rewinding by helicases has proved difficult to characterize biochemically because of its thermodynamically downhill nature. Here we use single-molecule assays to mechanically destabilize a DNA molecule and follow, in real time, unwinding and rewinding by two DNA repair helicases, bacteriophage T4 UvsW and Escherichia coli RecG. We find that both enzymes are robust rewinding enzymes, which can work against opposing forces as large as 35 pN, revealing their active character. The generation of work during the rewinding reaction allows them to couple rewinding to DNA unwinding and/or protein displacement reactions central to the rescue of stalled DNA replication forks. The overall results support a general mechanism for monomeric rewinding enzymes.
Cell–cell contacts confine public goods diffusion inside Pseudomonas aeruginosa clonal microcolonies
Thomas Julou, Thierry Mora, Laurent Guillon, Vincent Croquette, Isabelle J. Schal, David Bensimon, and Nicolas Desprat
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA - vol.110 (n°31) 12577–82 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1301428110 - 2013
he maintenance of cooperation in populations where public goods are equally accessible to all but inflict a fitness cost on individual producers is a long-standing puzzle of evolutionary biology. An example of such a scenario is the secretion of siderophores by bacteria into their environment to fetch soluble iron. In a planktonic culture, these molecules diffuse rapidly, such that the same concentration is experienced by all bacteria. However, on solid substrates, bacteria form dense and packed colonies that may alter the diffusion dynamics through cell–cell contact interactions. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa microcolonies growing on solid substrate, we found that the concentration of pyoverdine, a secreted iron chelator, is heterogeneous, with a maximum at the center of the colony. We quantitatively explain the formation of this gradient by local exchange between contacting cells rather than by global diffusion of pyoverdine. In addition, we show that this local trafficking modulates the growth rate of individual cells. Taken together, these data provide a physical basis that explains the stability of public goods production in packed colonies.
Microfluidic device with integrated microfilter of conical-shaped holes for high efficiency and high purity capture of circulating tumor cells
Yadong Tang, Jian Shi, Sisi Li, Li Wang, Yvon E. Cayre and Yong Chen
Scientific Reports - 4 (n°6052) - DOI:10.1038/srep06052 - 2013
Capture of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from peripheral blood of cancer patients has major implications for metastatic detection and therapy analyses. Here we demonstrated a microfluidic device for high efficiency and high purity capture of CTCs. The key novelty of this approach lies on the integration of a microfilter with conical-shaped holes and a micro-injector with cross-flow components for size dependent capture of tumor cells without significant retention of non-tumor cells. Under conditions of constant flow rate, tumor cells spiked into phosphate buffered saline could be recovered and then cultured for further analyses. When tumor cells were spiked in blood of healthy donors, they could also be recovered at high efficiency and high clearance efficiency of white blood cells. When the same device was used for clinical validation, CTCs could be detected in blood samples of cancer patients but not in that of healthy donors. Finally, the capture efficiency of tumor cells is cell-type dependent but the hole size of the filter should be more closely correlated to the nuclei size of the tumor cells. Together with the advantage of easy operation, low-cost and high potential of integration, this approach offers unprecedented opportunities for metastatic detection and cancer treatment monitoring.
Cyclic Olefin Copolymer Plasma millireactors
Schelcher G, Guyon C, Ognier S, Cavadias S, Martinez E, Taniga V, Malaquin L, Tabeling P and Tatoulian M
Lab. Chip - 14(16) 3037-42 - DOI: 10.1039/c4lc00423j - 2013
The novelty of this paper lies in the development of a multistep process for the manufacturing of plasma millireactors operating at atmospheric pressure. The fabrication process relies on the integration of metallic electrodes over a cyclic olefin copolymer chip by a combination of photopatterning and sputtering. The developed plasma millireactors were successfully tested by creating air discharges in the gas volume of the millichannel. A sputtered silica layer was deposited on the channel walls to provide a barrier between the plasma and the polymer in order to prevent the alteration of polymer surfaces during the plasma treatment. Interest in this process of employing plasma millireactor as a high reactive environment is demonstrated here by the degradation of a volatile organic compound (acetaldehyde) in ambient air. In this miniaturized device, we obtained a high acetaldehyde conversion (98%) for a specific input energy lower than 200 J L(-1).
Abnormal recruitment of extracellular matrix proteins by excess Notch3ECD: a new pathomechanism in CADASIL
Monet-Leprêtre M, Haddad I, Baron-Menguy C, Fouillot-Panchal M, Riani M, Domenga-Denier V, Dussaule C, Cognat E, Vinh J and Joutel A
Brain Oxford - (Pt 6) 1830-45 - DOI: 10.1093/brain/awt092 - 2013
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, or CADASIL, one of the most common inherited small vessel diseases of the brain, is characterized by a progressive loss of vascular smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix accumulation. The disease is caused by highly stereotyped mutations within the extracellular domain of the NOTCH3 receptor (Notch3(ECD)) that result in an odd number of cysteine residues. While CADASIL-associated NOTCH3 mutations differentially affect NOTCH3 receptor function and activity, they all are associated with early accumulation of Notch3(ECD)-containing aggregates in small vessels. We still lack mechanistic explanation to link NOTCH3 mutations with small vessel pathology. Herein, we hypothesized that excess Notch3(ECD) could recruit and sequester functionally important proteins within small vessels of the brain. We performed biochemical, nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and immunohistochemical analyses, using cerebral and arterial tissue derived from patients with CADASIL and mouse models of CADASIL that exhibit vascular lesions in the end- and early-stage of the disease, respectively. Biochemical fractionation of brain and artery samples demonstrated that mutant Notch3(ECD) accumulates in disulphide cross-linked detergent-insoluble aggregates in mice and patients with CADASIL. Further proteomic and immunohistochemical analyses identified two functionally important extracellular matrix proteins, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3) and vitronectin (VTN) that are sequestered into Notch3(ECD)-containing aggregates. Using cultured cells, we show that increased levels or aggregation of Notch3 enhances the formation of Notch3(ECD)-TIMP3 complex, promoting TIMP3 recruitment and accumulation. In turn, TIMP3 promotes complex formation including NOTCH3 and VTN. In vivo, brain vessels from mice and patients with CADASIL exhibit elevated levels of both insoluble cross-linked and soluble TIMP3 species. Moreover, reverse zymography assays show a significant elevation of TIMP3 activity in the brain vessels from mice and patients with CADASIL. Collectively, our findings lend support to a Notch3(ECD) cascade hypothesis in CADASIL disease pathology, which posits that aggregation/accumulation of Notch3(ECD) in the brain vessels is a central event, promoting the abnormal recruitment of functionally important extracellular matrix proteins that may ultimately cause multifactorial toxicity. Specifically, our results suggest a dysregulation of TIMP3 activity, which could contribute to mutant Notch3(ECD) toxicity by impairing extracellular matrix homeostasis in small vessels.
Landscape of protein–protein interactions in Drosophila immune deficiency signaling during bacterial challenge
Hidehiro Fukuyamaa, Yann Verdierb, Yongsheng Guana, Chieko Makino-Okamuraa, Victoria Shilovaa, Xi Liua, E. Maksouda, J. Matsubayashia, I. Haddadb, K. Spirohne, K. Onof, C. Hetruc, J. Rossierb, Trey Idekerf, M. Boutrose, Joëlle Vinh and Jules A. Hoffmann
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA - vol.110(n°26) 10717–22 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1304380110 - 2013
The Drosophila defense against pathogens largely relies on the activation of two signaling pathways: immune deficiency (IMD) and Toll. The IMD pathway is triggered mainly by Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the Toll pathway responds predominantly to Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The activation of these pathways leads to the rapid induction of numerous NF-κB–induced immune response genes, including antimicrobial peptide genes. The IMD pathway shows significant similarities with the TNF receptor pathway. Recent evidence indicates that the IMD pathway is also activated in response to various noninfectious stimuli (i.e., inflammatory-like reactions). To gain a better understanding of the molecular machinery underlying the pleiotropic functions of this pathway, we first performed a comprehensive proteomics analysis to identify the proteins interacting with the 11 canonical members of the pathway initially identified by genetic studies. We identified 369 interacting proteins (corresponding to 291 genes) in heat-killed Escherichia coli-stimulated Drosophila S2 cells, 92% of which have human orthologs. A comparative analysis of gene ontology from fly or human gene annotation databases points to four significant common categories: (i) the NuA4, nucleosome acetyltransferase of H4, histone acetyltransferase complex, (ii) the switching defective/sucrose nonfermenting-type chromatin remodeling complex, (iii) transcription coactivator activity, and (iv) translation factor activity. Here we demonstrate that sumoylation of the IκB kinase homolog immune response-deficient 5 plays an important role in the induction of antimicrobial peptide genes through a highly conserved sumoylation consensus site during bacterial challenge. Taken together, the proteomics data presented here provide a unique avenue for a comparative functional analysis of proteins involved in innate immune reactions in flies and mammals.
Red blood cells decorated with functionalized core–shell magnetic nanoparticles: elucidation of the adsorption mechanism
Thanh Duc Mai, Fanny d’Orlye, Christine Ménager, Anne Varenne and Jean-Michel Siaugue
Chem. Comm. - -49 5393—95 - DOI: 10.1039/C3CC41513A - 2013
Selection Dynamics in Transient Compartmentalization
Alex Blokhuis, David Lacoste, Philippe Nghe, and Luca Peliti
Phys. Rev. Lett. - 120(15) 158101 - doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.158101 - 2018
Transient compartments have been recently shown to be able to maintain functional replicators in the context of prebiotic studies. Here, we show that a broad class of selection dynamics is able to achieve this goal. We identify two key parameters, the relative amplification of nonactive replicators (parasites) and the size of compartments. These parameters account for competition and diversity, and the results are relevant to similar multilevel selection problems, such as those found in virus-host ecology and trait group selection.
Microfluidic actuators based on temperature-responsive hydrogels
Loïc D'Eramo, Benjamin Chollet, Marie Leman, Ekkachai Martwong, Mengxing Li, Hubert Geisler, Jules Dupire, Margaux Kerdraon, Clémence Vergne, Fabrice Monti, Yvette Tran & Patrick Tabeling
- 17069 (2018) - doi.org/10.1038/micronano.2017.69 - 2018
The concept of using stimuli-responsive hydrogels to actuate fluids in microfluidic devices is particularly attractive, but limitations, in terms of spatial resolution, speed, reliability and integration, have hindered its development during the past two decades. By patterning and grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) PNIPAM hydrogel films on plane substrates with a 2 μm horizontal resolution and closing the system afterward, we have succeeded in unblocking bottlenecks that thermo-sensitive hydrogel technology has been challenged with until now. In this paper, we demonstrate, for the first time with this technology, devices with up to 7800 actuated micro-cages that sequester and release solutes, along with valves actuated individually with closing and opening switching times of 0.6±0.1 and 0.25±0.15 s, respectively. Two applications of this technology are illustrated in the domain of single cell handling and the nuclear acid amplification test (NAAT) for the Human Synaptojanin 1 gene, which is suspected to be involved in several neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. The performance of the temperature-responsive hydrogels we demonstrate here suggests that in association with their moderate costs, hydrogels may represent an alternative to the actuation or handling techniques currently used in microfluidics, that are, pressure actuated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) valves and droplets.
Information-theoretic analysis of the directional influence between cellular processes
Sourabh Lahiri, Philippe Nghe, Sander J. Tans, Martin Luc Rosinberg, David Lacoste
- 12(11) - https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187431 - 2017
Inferring the directionality of interactions between cellular processes is a major challenge in systems biology. Time-lagged correlations allow to discriminate between alternative models, but they still rely on assumed underlying interactions. Here, we use the transfer entropy (TE), an information-theoretic quantity that quantifies the directional influence between fluctuating variables in a model-free way. We present a theoretical approach to compute the transfer entropy, even when the noise has an extrinsic component or in the presence of feedback. We re-analyze the experimental data from Kiviet et al. (2014) where fluctuations in gene expression of metabolic enzymes and growth rate have been measured in single cells of E. coli. We confirm the formerly detected modes between growth and gene expression, while prescribing more stringent conditions on the structure of noise sources. We furthermore point out practical requirements in terms of length of time series and sampling time which must be satisfied in order to infer optimally transfer entropy from times series of fluctuations.

291 publications.