Université PSL

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Increasing the Cytotoxicity of Ru(II) Polypyridyl Complexes by Tuning the Electronic Structure of Dioxo Ligands
Laboratoire Synthèse Electrochimie Imagerie et Systèmes Analytiques - Anna Notaro, Marta Jakubaszek, Nils Rotthowe, Federica Maschietto, Robin Vinck, Patrick S. Felder, Bruno Goud, Mickaël Tharaud, Ilaria Ciofini, Fethi Bedioui, Rainer F. Winter, and Gilles Gasser
J. Am. Chem. Soc. - 142(13) 6066–6084 - doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b12464 - 2020
Due to the great potential expressed by an anticancer drug candidate previously reported by our group, namely, Ru-sq ([Ru(DIP)2(sq)](PF6) (DIP, 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline; sq, semiquinonate ligand), we describe in this work a structure–activity relationship (SAR) study that involves a broader range of derivatives resulting from the coordination of different catecholate-type dioxo ligands to the same Ru(DIP)2 core. In more detail, we chose catechols carrying either an electron-donating group (EDG) or an electron-withdrawing group (EWG) and investigated the physicochemical and biological properties of their complexes. Several pieces of experimental evidences demonstrated that the coordination of catechols bearing EDGs led to deep-red positively charged complexes 1–4 in which the preferred oxidation state of the dioxo ligand is the uninegatively charged semiquinonate. Complexes 5 and 6, on the other hand, are blue/violet neutral complexes, which carry an EWG-substituted dinegatively charged catecholate ligand. The biological investigation of complexes 1–6 led to the conclusion that the difference in their physicochemical properties has a strong impact on their biological activity. Thus, complexes 1–4 expressed much higher cytotoxicities than complexes 5 and 6. Complex 1 constitutes the most promising compound in the series and was selected for a more in depth biological investigation. Apart from its remarkably high cytotoxicity (IC50 = 0.07–0.7 μM in different cancerous cell lines), complex 1 was taken up by HeLa cells very efficiently by a passive transportation mechanism. Moreover, its moderate accumulation in several cellular compartments (i.e., nucleus, lysosomes, mitochondria, and cytoplasm) is extremely advantageous in the search for a potential drug with multiple modes of action. Further DNA metalation and metabolic studies pointed to the direct interaction of complex 1 with DNA and to the severe impairment of the mitochondrial function. Multiple targets, together with its outstanding cytotoxicity, make complex 1 a valuable candidate in the field of chemotherapy research. It is noteworthy that a preliminary biodistribution study on healthy mice demonstrated the suitability of complex 1 for further in vivo studies.



Mineral surfaces select for longer RNA molecules
Laboratoire Biochimie - Ryo Mizuuchi, Alex Blokhuis,b, Lena Vincent, Philippe Nghe, Niles Lehman, and David Baumd
Chem. Comm. - 55(14) 2090–2093. - 10.1039/c8cc10319d - 2019
We report empirically and theoretically that multiple prebiotic minerals can selectively accumulate longer RNAs, with selectivity enhanced at higher temperatures. We further demonstrate that surfaces can be combined with a catalytic RNA to form longer RNA polymers, supporting the potential of minerals to develop genetic information on the early Earth.
Large work extraction and the Landauer limit in a continuous Maxwell demon
Laboratoire Biochimie - Marco Ribezzi Crivellari
Nature Physics - 15(7) 93 - DOI: 10.1038/s41567-019-0481-0 - 2019
The relation between entropy and information dates back to the classical Maxwell demon paradox¹, a thought experiment proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell to violate the second law of thermodynamics. A variant of the classical Maxwell demon is the Szilard engine, proposed by Leo Szilard in 1929¹. In it, at a given time, the demon observes the compartment occupied by a single molecule in a vessel and extracts work by operating a pulley device. Here, we introduce the continuous Maxwell demon, a device capable of extracting arbitrarily large amounts of work per cycle by repeated measurements of the state of a system, and experimentally test it in single DNA hairpin pulling experiments. In the continuous Maxwell demon, the demon monitors the state of the DNA hairpin (folded or unfolded) by observing it at equally spaced time intervals, but it extracts work only when the molecule changes state. We demonstrate that the average maximum work per cycle that can be extracted by the continuous Maxwell demon is limited by the information content of the stored sequences, in agreement with the second law. Work extraction efficiency is found to be maximal in the large information-content limit where work extraction is fuelled by rare events.
High-throughput single-cell ChIP-seq identifies heterogeneity of chromatin states in breast cancer
Laboratoire Biochimie - Grosselin K1,2,3, Durand A4,5, Marsolier J, Poitou A, Marangoni E, Nemati F, Dahmani A, Lameiras S, Reyal F, Frenoy O, Pousse Y, Reichen M, Woolfe A, Brenan C, Griffiths AD, Vallot C, Gérard A.i
Nat Genet. - 51(6) 1060-1066 - doi: 10.1038/s41588-019-0424-9. - 2019
Modulation of chromatin structure via histone modification is a major epigenetic mechanism and regulator of gene expression. However, the contribution of chromatin features to tumor heterogeneity and evolution remains unknown. Here we describe a high-throughput droplet microfluidics platform to profile chromatin landscapes of thousands of cells at single-cell resolution. Using patient-derived xenograft models of acquired resistance to chemotherapy and targeted therapy in breast cancer, we found that a subset of cells within untreated drug-sensitive tumors share a common chromatin signature with resistant cells, undetectable using bulk approaches. These cells, and cells from the resistant tumors, have lost chromatin marks-H3K27me3, which is associated with stable transcriptional repression-for genes known to promote resistance to treatment. This single-cell chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing approach paves the way to study the role of chromatin heterogeneity, not just in cancer but in other diseases and healthy systems, notably during cellular differentiation and development.
Experimental evidence of symmetry breaking of transition-path times
Laboratoire Biochimie - J.Gladrow, M. Ribezzi-Crivellari, F. Ritort & U. F. Keyser
Nature Communications - 10 55 - doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07873-9 - 2019
While thermal rates of state transitions in classical systems have been studied for almost a century, associated transition-path times have only recently received attention. Uphill and downhill transition paths between states at different free energies should be statistically indistinguishable. Here, we systematically investigate transition-path-time symmetry and report evidence of its breakdown on the molecular- and meso-scale out of equilibrium. In automated Brownian dynamics experiments, we establish first-passage-time symmetries of colloids driven by femtoNewton forces in holographically-created optical landscapes confined within microchannels. Conversely, we show that transitions which couple in a path-dependent manner to fluctuating forces exhibit asymmetry. We reproduce this asymmetry in folding transitions of DNA-hairpins driven out of equilibrium and suggest a topological mechanism of symmetry breakdown. Our results are relevant to measurements that capture a single coordinate in a multidimensional free energy landscape, as encountered in electrophysiology and single-molecule fluorescence experiments.
Recent insights into the genotype–phenotype relationship from massively parallel genetic assays
Laboratoire Biochimie - Harry Kemble Philippe Nghe Olivier Tenaillon
Nature Physics - 9 12 - doi.org/10.1111/eva.12846 - 2019
With the molecular revolution in Biology, a mechanistic understanding of the genotype–phenotype relationship became possible. Recently, advances in DNA synthesis and sequencing have enabled the development of deep mutational scanning assays, capable of scoring comprehensive libraries of genotypes for fitness and a variety of phenotypes in massively parallel fashion. The resulting empirical genotype–fitness maps pave the way to predictive models, potentially accelerating our ability to anticipate the behaviour of pathogen and cancerous cell populations from sequencing data. Besides from cellular fitness, phenotypes of direct application in industry (e.g. enzyme activity) and medicine (e.g. antibody binding) can be quantified and even selected directly by these assays. This review discusses the technological basis of and recent developments in massively parallel genetics, along with the trends it is uncovering in the genotype–phenotype relationship (distribution of mutation effects, epistasis), their possible mechanistic bases and future directions for advancing towards the goal of predictive genetics.
Large scale control and programming of gene expression using CRISPR.
Laboratoire Biochimie - Deyell M, Ameta S, Nghe P
Semin Cell Dev Biol. - S1084-9521(18 30110-1 - doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2019.05.013 - 2019
The control of gene expression in cells and organisms allows to unveil gene to function relationships and to reprogram biological responses. Several systems, such as Zinc fingers, TALE (Transcription activator-like effectors), and siRNAs (small-interfering RNAs), have been exploited to achieve this. However, recent advances in Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) have overshadowed them due to high specificity, compatibility with many different organisms, and design flexibility. In this review we summarize state-of-the art for CRISPR-Cas9 technology for large scale gene perturbation studies, including single gene and multiple genes knock-out, knock-down, knock-up libraries, and their associated screening assays. We feature in particular the combination of these methods with single-cell transcriptomics approaches. Finally, we highlight the application of CRISPR-Cas9 systems in building synthetic circuits that can be interfaced with gene networks to control cellular states.
Reconstitution of cell migration at a glance
Laboratoire Biologie cellulaire systémique de la polarité et de la division - Juan Manuel Garcia-Arcos, Renaud Chabrier, Mathieu Deygas, Guilherme Nader, Lucie Barbier, Pablo José Sáez, Aastha Mathur, Pablo Vargas, Matthieu Piel
Frontiers in immunology - 188.e5 171 - DOI : jcs225565 - 2019
Single cells migrate in a myriad of physiological contexts, such as tissue patrolling by immune cells, and during neurogenesis and tissue remodeling, as well as in metastasis, the spread of cancer cells. To understand the basic principles of single-cell migration, a reductionist approach can be taken. This aims to control and deconstruct the complexity of different cellular microenvironments into simpler elementary constrains that can be recombined together. This approach is the cell microenvironment equivalent of reconstituted systems that combine elementary molecular players to understand cellular functions. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster, we present selected experimental setups that mimic different events that cells undergo during migration These include polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices to deform whole cells or organelles, micro patterning, nano-fabricated structures like grooves, and compartmentalized collagen chambers with chemical gradients. We also outline the main contribution of each technique to the understanding of different aspects of single-cell migration.
Innate control of actin nucleation determines two distinct migration behaviours in dendritic cells.
Laboratoire Biologie cellulaire systémique de la polarité et de la division - Vargas P, Maiuri P, Bretou M, Sáez PJ, Pierobon P, Maurin M, Chabaud M, Lankar D, Obino D, Terriac E, Raab M, Thiam H-R, Brocker T, Kitchen-Goosen SM, Alberts AS, Sunareni P, Xia S, Li R, Voituriez R, Piel M, Lennon-Duménil A-M
Nat. Cell Biol. - 18(1): 43-53 - DOI: 10.1016/j.jim.2015.12.005 - 2019
Dendritic cell (DC) migration in peripheral tissues serves two main functions: antigen sampling by immature DCs, and chemokine-guided migration towards lymphatic vessels (LVs) on maturation. These migratory events determine the efficiency of the adaptive immune response. Their regulation by the core cell locomotion machinery has not been determined. Here, we show that the migration of immature DCs depends on two main actin pools: a RhoA-mDia1-dependent actin pool located at their rear, which facilitates forward locomotion; and a Cdc42-Arp2/3-dependent actin pool present at their front, which limits migration but promotes antigen capture. Following TLR4-MyD88-induced maturation, Arp2/3-dependent actin enrichment at the cell front is markedly reduced. Consequently, mature DCs switch to a faster and more persistent mDia1-dependent locomotion mode that facilitates chemotactic migration to LVs and lymph nodes. Thus, the differential use of actin-nucleating machineries optimizes the migration of immature and mature DCs according to their specific function.
Optical volume and mass measurements show that mammalian cells swell during mitosis.
Laboratoire Biologie cellulaire systémique de la polarité et de la division - Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz E, Monnier S, Cappello G, Le Berre M, Piel M
J. Cell Biol. - 211( 4): 765-74 - DOI: 10.1016/j.jim.2015.12.005 - 2019
The extent, mechanism, and function of cell volume changes during specific cellular events, such as cell migration and cell division, have been poorly studied, mostly because of a lack of adequate techniques. Here we unambiguously report that a large range of mammalian cell types display a significant increase in volume during mitosis (up to 30%). We further show that this increase in volume is tightly linked to the mitotic state of the cell and not to its spread or rounded shape and is independent of the presence of an intact actomyosin cortex. Importantly, this volume increase is not accompanied by an increase in dry mass and thus corresponds to a decrease in cell density. This mitotic swelling might have important consequences for mitotic progression: it might contribute to produce strong pushing forces, allowing mitotic cells to round up; it might also, by lowering cytoplasmic density, contribute to the large change of physicochemical properties observed in mitotic cells.
Actin Flows Mediate a Universal Coupling between Cell Speed and Cell Persistence.
Laboratoire Biologie cellulaire systémique de la polarité et de la division - Maiuri P, Rupprecht J-F, Wieser S, Ruprecht V, Bénichou O, Carpi N, Coppey M, De Beco S, Gov N, Heisenberg C-P, Lage Crespo C, Lautenschlaeger F, Le Berre M, Lennon-Dumenil A-M, Raab M, Thiam H-R, Piel M, Sixt M, Voituriez R
Cell - 161(2) 374-86 - DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.01.056 - 2019
Cell movement has essential functions in development, immunity, and cancer. Various cell migration patterns have been reported, but no general rule has emerged so far. Here, we show on the basis of experimental data in vitro and in vivo that cell persistence, which quantifies the straightness of trajectories, is robustly coupled to cell migration speed. We suggest that this universal coupling constitutes a generic law of cell migration, which originates in the advection of polarity cues by an actin cytoskeleton undergoing flows at the cellular scale. Our analysis relies on a theoretical model that we validate by measuring the persistence of cells upon modulation of actin flow speeds and upon optogenetic manipulation of the binding of an actin regulator to actin filaments. Beyond the quantitative prediction of the coupling, the model yields a generic phase diagram of cellular trajectories, which recapitulates the full range of observed migration patterns.
Deterministic patterns in cell motility
Laboratoire Biologie cellulaire systémique de la polarité et de la division - Ido Lavi, Matthieu Piel, Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil , Raphaël Voituriez and Nir S. Gov
Nature Physics - 12 1146–1152 - DOI: : 10.1038/NPHYS3836 - 2019
Cell migration paths are generally described as random walks, associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic noise. However, complex cell locomotion is not merely related to such fluctuations, but is often determined by the underlying machinery. Cell motility is driven mechanically by actin and myosin, two molecular components that generate contractile forces. Other cell functions make use of the same components and, therefore, will compete with the migratory apparatus. Here, we propose a physical model of such a competitive system, namely dendritic cells whose antigen capture function and migratory ability are coupled by myosin II. The model predicts that this coupling gives rise to a dynamic instability, whereby cells switch from persistent migration to unidirectional self-oscillation, through a Hopf bifurcation. Cells can then switch to periodic polarity reversals through a homoclinic bifurcation. These predicted dynamic regimes are characterized by robust features that we identify through in vitro trajectories of dendritic cells over long timescales and distances. We expect that competition for limited resources in other migrating cell types can lead to similar deterministic migration modes.
The physics of cell-size regulation across timescales
Laboratoire Biologie cellulaire systémique de la polarité et de la division - Clotilde Cadart, Larisa Venkova , Pierre Recho , Marco Cosentino Lagomarsino and Matthieu Piel
Nature Physics - 15 993–1004 - doi.org/10.1038/s41567-019-0629-y - 2019
The size of a cell is determined by a combination of synthesis, self-assembly, incoming matter and the balance of mechanical
forces. Such processes operate at the single-cell level, but they are deeply interconnected with cell-cycle progression, resulting
in a stable average cell size at the population level. Here, we examine this phenomenon by reviewing the physics of growth
processes that operate at vastly different timescales, but result in the controlled production of daughter cells that are close
copies of their mothers. We first review the regulatory mechanisms of size at short timescales, focusing on the contribution of
fundamental physical forces. We then discuss the multiple relevant regulation processes operating on the timescale of the cell
cycle. Finally, we look at how these processes interact: one of the most important challenges to date involves bridging the gap
between timescales, connecting the physics of cell growth and the biology of cell-cycle progression.
A Tug-of-War between Cell Shape and Polarity Controls Division Orientation to Ensure Robust Patterning in the Mouse Blastocyst
Laboratoire Biologie cellulaire systémique de la polarité et de la division - Niwayama R , Moghe P, Liu YJ, Fabrèges D, Buchholz F, Piel M, Hiiragi T
Dev Cell - 51(5) 564-574.e6 - DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2019.10.012 5 - 2019
Oriented cell division patterns tissues by modulating cell position and fate. While cell geometry, junctions, cortical tension, and polarity are known to control division orientation, relatively little is known about how these are coordinated to ensure robust patterning. Here, we systematically characterize cell division, volume, and shape changes during mouse pre-implantation development by in toto live imaging. The analysis leads us to a model in which the apical domain competes with cell shape to determine division orientation. Two key predictions of the model are verified experimentally: when outside cells of the 16-cell embryo are released from cell shape asymmetry, the axis of division is guided by the apical domain. Conversely, orientation cues from the apical domain can be overcome by applied shape asymmetry in the 8-cell embryo. We propose that such interplay between cell shape and polarity in controlling division orientation ensures robust patterning of the blastocyst and possibly other tissues.
Macropinocytosis Overcomes Directional Bias in Dendritic Cells Due to Hydraulic Resistance and Facilitates Space Exploration
Laboratoire Biologie cellulaire systémique de la polarité et de la division - Hélène D Moreau, Carles Blanch-Mercader, Rafaele Attia, Mathieu Maurin, Zahraa Alraies, Doriane Sanséau, Odile Malbec, Maria-Graciela Delgado, Philippe Bousso, Jean-François Joanny, Raphaël Voituriez, Matthieu Piel, Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil
Dev Cell - 49(2) 171-188.e5 - DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2019.03.024 - 2019
The migration of immune cells can be guided by physical cues imposed by the environment, such as geometry, rigidity, or hydraulic resistance (HR). Neutrophils preferentially follow paths of least HR in vitro, a phenomenon known as barotaxis. The mechanisms and physiological relevance of barotaxis remain unclear. We show that barotaxis results from the amplification of a small force imbalance by the actomyosin cytoskeleton, resulting in biased directional choices. In immature dendritic cells (DCs), actomyosin is recruited to the cell front to build macropinosomes. These cells are therefore insensitive to HR, as macropinocytosis allows fluid transport across these cells. This may enhance their space exploration capacity in vivo. Conversely, mature DCs down-regulate macropinocytosis and are thus barotactic. Modeling suggests that HR may help guide these cells to lymph nodes where they initiate immune responses. Hence, DCs can either overcome or capitalize on the physical obstacles they encounter, helping their immune-surveillance function
STK38 kinase acts as XPO1 gatekeeper regulating the nuclear export of autophagy proteins and other cargoes
Laboratoire Biologie cellulaire systémique de la polarité et de la division - A PJ Martin M Jacquemyn J Lipecka C Chhuon V N Aushev B Meunier M K Singh N Carpi M Piel P Codogno A Hergovich M C Parrini G Zalcman I C Guerrera D Daelemans J H Camonis
EMBO Rep - 20 e48150 - doi.org/10.15252/embr.201948150 - 2019
STK38 (also known as NDR1) is a Hippo pathway serine/threonine protein kinase with multifarious functions in normal and cancer cells. Using a context‐dependent proximity‐labeling assay, we identify more than 250 partners of STK38 and find that STK38 modulates its partnership depending on the cellular context by increasing its association with cytoplasmic proteins upon nutrient starvation‐induced autophagy and with nuclear ones during ECM detachment. We show that STK38 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and that its nuclear exit depends on both XPO1 (aka exportin‐1, CRM1) and STK38 kinase activity. We further uncover that STK38 modulates XPO1 export activity by phosphorylating XPO1 on serine 1055, thus regulating its own nuclear exit. We expand our model to other cellular contexts by discovering that XPO1 phosphorylation by STK38 regulates also the nuclear exit of Beclin1 and YAP1, key regulator of autophagy and transcriptional effector, respectively. Collectively, our results reveal STK38 as an activator of XPO1, behaving as a gatekeeper of nuclear export. These observations establish a novel mechanism of XPO1‐dependent cargo export regulation by phosphorylation of XPO1's C‐terminal auto‐inhibitory domain.
The N-Terminal Domain of cGAS Determines Preferential Association with Centromeric DNA and Innate Immune Activation in the Nucleus
Laboratoire Biologie cellulaire systémique de la polarité et de la division - Gentili M, Lahaye X, Nadalin F1, Nader GPF, Puig Lombardi E, Herve S, De Silva NS, Rookhuizen DC, Zueva E, Goudot C, Maurin M, Bochnakian A, Amigorena S, Piel M, Fachinetti D, Londoño-Vallejo A,
Cell Reports - 26(9) 2377-2393.e13 - DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.01.105 - 2019
Cytosolic DNA activates cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS), an innate immune sensor pivotal in anti-microbial defense, senescence, auto-immunity, and cancer. cGAS is considered to be a sequence-independent DNA sensor with limited access to nuclear DNA because of compartmentalization. However, the nuclear envelope is a dynamic barrier, and cGAS is present in the nucleus. Here, we identify determinants of nuclear cGAS localization and activation. We show that nuclear-localized cGAS synthesizes cGAMP and induces innate immune activation of dendritic cells, although cGAMP levels are 200-fold lower than following transfection with exogenous DNA. Using cGAS ChIP-seq and a GFP-cGAS knockin mouse, we find nuclear cGAS enrichment on centromeric satellite DNA, confirmed by imaging, and to a lesser extent on LINE elements. The non-enzymatic N-terminal domain of cGAS determines nucleo-cytoplasmic localization, enrichment on centromeres, and activation of nuclear-localized cGAS. These results reveal a preferential functional association of nuclear cGAS with centromeres.
Profilin and formin constitute a pacemaker system for robust actin filament growth
Laboratoire Biologie cellulaire systémique de la polarité et de la division - Johanna Funk, Felipe Merino, Larisa Venkova, Lina Heydenreich, Jan Kierfeld, Pablo Vargas, Stefan Raunser, Matthieu Piel, Peter Bieling Is a corresponding author
Dev Cell - 8 e50963 - DOI: 10.7554/eLife.50963 - 2019
The actin cytoskeleton drives many essential biological processes, from cell morphogenesis to motility. Assembly of functional actin networks requires control over the speed at which actin filaments grow. How this can be achieved at the high and variable levels of soluble actin subunits found in cells is unclear. Here we reconstitute assembly of mammalian, non-muscle actin filaments from physiological concentrations of profilin-actin. We discover that under these conditions, filament growth is limited by profilin dissociating from the filament end and the speed of elongation becomes insensitive to the concentration of soluble subunits. Profilin release can be directly promoted by formin actin polymerases even at saturating profilin-actin concentrations. We demonstrate that mammalian cells indeed operate at the limit to actin filament growth imposed by profilin and formins. Our results reveal how synergy between profilin and formins generates robust filament growth rates that are resilient to changes in the soluble subunit concentration..
Myosin II Activity Is Selectively Needed for Migration in Highly Confined Microenvironments in Mature Dendritic Cells.
Laboratoire Biologie cellulaire systémique de la polarité et de la division - Lucie Barbier, Pablo J Sáez, Rafaele Attia, Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil, Ido Lavi, Matthieu Piel, Pablo Vargas
Frontiers in immunology - 11 747 - DOI : 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00747 - 2019
Upon infection, mature dendritic cells (mDCs) migrate from peripheral tissue to lymph nodes (LNs) to activate T lymphocytes and initiate the adaptive immune response. This fast and tightly regulated process is tuned by different microenvironmental factors, such as the physical properties of the tissue. Mechanistically, mDCs migration mostly relies on acto-myosin flow and contractility that depend on non-muscular Myosin IIA (MyoII) activity. However, the specific contribution of this molecular motor for mDCs navigation in complex microenvironments has yet to be fully established. Here, we identified a specific role of MyoII activity in the regulation of mDCs migration in highly confined microenvironments. Using microfluidic systems, we observed that during mDCs chemotaxis in 3D collagen gels under defined CCL21 gradients, MyoII activity was required to sustain their fast speed but not to orientate them toward the chemokine. Indeed, despite the fact that mDCs speed declined, these cells still migrated through the 3D gels, indicating that this molecular motor has a discrete function during their motility in this irregular microenvironment. Consistently, using microchannels of different sizes, we found that MyoII activity was essential to maintain fast cell speed specifically under strong confinement. Analysis of cell motility through micrometric holes further demonstrated that cell contractility facilitated mDCs passage only over very small gaps. Altogether, this work highlights that high contractility acts as an adaptation mechanism exhibited by mDCs to optimize their motility in restricted landscapes. Hence, MyoII activity ultimately facilitates their navigation in highly confined areas of structurally irregular tissues, contributing to the fine-tuning of their homing to LNs to initiate adaptive immune responses.
Reconstruction of destruction – in vitro reconstitution methods in autophagy research
Laboratoire Biologie cellulaire systémique de la polarité et de la division - Satish Babu Moparthi, Thomas Wollert
Journal of Cell Science - 132 jcs223792 - doi: 10.1242/jcs.223792 - 2019
Autophagy is one of the most elaborative membrane remodeling systems in eukaryotic cells. Its major function is to recycle cytoplasmic material by delivering it to lysosomes for degradation. To achieve this, a membrane cisterna is formed that gradually captures cargo such as organelles or protein aggregates. The diversity of cargo requires autophagy to be highly versatile to adapt the shape of the phagophore to its substrate. Upon closure of the phagophore, a double-membrane-surrounded autophagosome is formed that eventually fuses with lysosomes. In response to environmental cues such as cytotoxicity or starvation, bulk cytoplasm can be captured and delivered to lysosomes. Autophagy thus supports cellular survival under adverse conditions. During the past decades, groundbreaking genetic and cell biological studies have identified the core machinery involved in the process. In this Review, we are focusing on in vitro reconstitution approaches to decipher the details and spatiotemporal control of autophagy, and how such studies contributed to our current understanding of the pathways in yeast and mammals. We highlight studies that revealed the function of the autophagy machinery at a molecular level with respect to its capacity to remodel membranes.

628 publications.