Université PSL



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Microporous electrostrictive materials for vibrational energy harvesting
Mickaël Pruvost, Wilbert J Smit, Cécile Monteux, Philippe Poulin, Annie Colin
Multifunctional Materials - 1 015004 - - 2018
We present electrostrictive materials with excellent properties for vibrational energy harvesting applications. The developed materials consist of a porous carbon black composite, which is processed using water-in-oil emulsions. In combination with an insulating layer, the investigated structures exhibit a high effective relative dielectric permittivity (up to 182 at 100 Hz) with very low effective conductivity (down to 2.53 10− 8 S m− 1). They can generate electrical energy in response to mechanical vibrations with a power density of 0.38 W m− 3 under an applied bias electric field of 32 V. They display figures or merit for energy harvesting applications well above reference polymer materials in the field, including fluorinated co-and ter-polymers synthetized by heavy chemical processes. The production process of the present materials is based on non hazardous and low-cost chemicals. The soft dielectric materials are …
Shear Rheology Control of Wrinkles and Patterns in Graphene Oxide Films
Franco Tardani, Wilfrid Neri, Cécile Zakri, Hamid Kellay, Annie Colin, Philippe Poulin
Langmuir - 9(34) 2996-3002 - - 2018
Drying graphene oxide (GO) films are subject to extensive wrinkling, which largely affects their final properties. Wrinkles were shown to be suitable in biotechnological applications; however, they negatively affect the electronic properties of the films. Here, we report on wrinkle tuning and patterning of GO films under stress-controlled conditions during drying. GO flakes assemble at an air–solvent interface; the assembly forms a skin at the surface and may bend due to volume shrinkage while drying. We applied a modification of evaporative lithography to spatially define the evaporative stress field. Wrinkle alignment is achieved over cm2 areas. The wavelength (i.e., wrinkle spacing) is controlled in the μm range by the film thickness and GO concentration. Furthermore, we propose the use of nanoparticles to control capillary forces to suppress wrinkling. An example of a controlled pattern is given to elucidate the …
All-organic microelectromechanical systems integrating electrostrictive nanocomposite for mechanical energy harvesting
Hussein Nesser, Hélène Debéda, Jinkai Yuan, Annie Colin, Philippe Poulin, Isabelle Dufour, Cédric Ayela
Nano energy - 44 1-6 - - 2018
Recent advances in the field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have generated great interest in the substitution of inorganic microcantilevers by organic ones, due to their low cost, high flexibility and a simplified fabrication by means of printing methods. Here, we present the integration of electrostrictive nanocomposites into organic microcantilever resonators specifically designed for mechanical energy harvesting from ambient vibrations. Strain sensitive nanocomposite materials composed of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) dispersed in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are integrated into all-organic MEMS by means of an innovative low-cost and environment friendly process by combining printing techniques and xurography. Static tests of the electrostrictive nanocomposite with 3.7 wt% rGO show good performances with variations of capacitance that exceeds 4% for strain values lower than 0.55% as the …
Giant Electrostriction of Soft Nanocomposites Based on Liquid Crystalline Graphene
Jinkai Yuan, Alan Luna, Wilfrid Neri, Cécile Zakri, Annie Colin, Philippe Poulin
ACS nano - 12(2) 1688-1695 - - 2018
High electromechanical coupling is critical to perform effective conversion between mechanical and electrical energy for various applications of electrostrictive polymers. Herein, a giant electrostriction effect is reported in liquid crystalline graphene-doped dielectric elastomers. The materials are formulated by a phase-transfer method which allows the solubilization of graphenic monolayers in nonpolar solvents. Dielectric spectroscopy is combined with tensile test devices to measure the true electrostriction coefficients with differentiating the Maxwell stress effect. Because of their liquid crystal structure, the resultant composites show an ultralarge electrostriction coefficient (∼10–14 m2/V2 at 0.1 Hz) coupled with good reproducibility during cycles at high deformation rates. This work offers a promising pathway to design high-performance electrostrictive polymer composites as well as to provide insights into mechanisms …
Shear thinning in non-Brownian suspensions
Guillaume Chatté, Jean Comtet, Antoine Niguès, Lydéric Bocquet, Alessandro Siria, Guylaine Ducouret, François Lequeux, Nicolas Lenoir, Guillaume Ovarlez, Annie Colin
Soft Matter - 6(14) 879-893 - - 2018
We study the flow of suspensions of non-Brownian particles dispersed into a Newtonian solvent. Combining capillary rheometry and conventional rheometry, we evidence a succession of two shear thinning regimes separated by a shear thickening one. Through X-ray radiography measurements, we show that during each of those regimes, the flow remains homogeneous and does not involve particle migration. Using a quartz-tuning fork based atomic force microscope, we measure the repulsive force profile and the microscopic friction coefficient μ between two particles immersed into the solvent, as a function of normal load. Coupling measurements from those three techniques, we propose that (1) the first shear-thinning regime at low shear rates occurs for a lubricated rheology and can be interpreted as a decrease of the effective volume fraction under increasing particle pressures, due to short-ranged repulsive …
Flow and fracture near the sol–gel transition of silica nanoparticle suspensions
Gustavo E. Gimenes a and Elisabeth Bouchaudbc
Soft Matter - 14 8036-8043 - DOI:10.1039/C8SM01247D - 2018
We analyze the evolution of the mechanical response of a colloidal suspension to an external tensile stress, from fracture to flow, as a function of the distance from the sol–gel transition. We cease to observe cracks at a finite distance from the transition. In an intermediate region where the phenomenon is clearly hysteretic, we observe the coexistence of both flow and fracture. Even when cracks are observed, the material in fact flows over a distance that increases in the vicinity of the transition.
Microfluidic actuators based on temperature-responsive hydrogels
Loïc D'Eramo, Benjamin Chollet, Marie Leman, Ekkachai Martwong, Mengxing Li, Hubert Geisler, Jules Dupire, Margaux Kerdraon, Clémence Vergne, Fabrice Monti, Yvette Tran & Patrick Tabeling
Microsystems & Nanoengineering - 4 17069 - doi.org/10.1038/micronano.2017.69 - 2018
The concept of using stimuli-responsive hydrogels to actuate fluids in microfluidic devices is particularly attractive, but limitations, in terms of spatial resolution, speed, reliability and integration, have hindered its development during the past two decades. By patterning and grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) PNIPAM hydrogel films on plane substrates with a 2 μm horizontal resolution and closing the system afterward, we have succeeded in unblocking bottlenecks that thermo-sensitive hydrogel technology has been challenged with until now. In this paper, we demonstrate, for the first time with this technology, devices with up to 7800 actuated micro-cages that sequester and release solutes, along with valves actuated individually with closing and opening switching times of 0.6±0.1 and 0.25±0.15 s, respectively. Two applications of this technology are illustrated in the domain of single cell handling and the nuclear acid amplification test (NAAT) for the Human Synaptojanin 1 gene, which is suspected to be involved in several neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. The performance of the temperature-responsive hydrogels we demonstrate here suggests that in association with their moderate costs, hydrogels may represent an alternative to the actuation or handling techniques currently used in microfluidics, that are, pressure actuated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) valves and droplets.
Interfacial transport with mobile surface charges and consequences for ionic transport in carbon nanotubes
Timothée Mouterde, Lydéric Bocquet
Eur. Phys. - 41 148 - doi.org/10.1140/epje/i2018-11760-2 - 2018
In this paper, we explore the effect of a finite surface charge mobility on the interfacial transport: conductance, streaming currents, electro- and diffusio-osmotic flows. We first show that the surface charge mobility modifies the hydrodynamic boundary condition for the fluid, which introduces a supplementary term depending on the applied electric field. In particular, the resulting slip length is found to decrease inversely with the surface charge. We then derive expressions for the various transport mobilities, highlighting that the surface charge mobility merely moderates the amplification effect of interfacial slippage, to the noticeable exception of diffusio-osmosis and surface conductance. Our calculations, obtained within Poisson-Boltzmann framework, highlight the importance of non-linear electrostatic contributions to predict the small concentration/large charge limiting regimes for the transport mobilities. We discuss these predictions in the context of recent electrokinetic experiments with carbon nanotubes.
Transport and dispersion across wiggling nano-pores
Sophie Marbach, David S. Dean & Lydéric Bocquet
Nature Physics - 14 1108–1113 - doi.org/10.1038/s41567-018-0239-0 - 2018
The transport of fluids at the nanoscale has achieved major breakthroughs over recent years1,2,3,4; however, artificial channels still cannot match the efficiency of biological porins in terms of fluxes or selectivity. Pore shape agitation—due to thermal fluctuations or in response to external stimuli—is believed to facilitate transport in biochannels5,6,7,8,9, but its impact on transport in artificial pores remains largely unexplored. Here we introduce a general theory for transport through thermally or actively fluctuating channels, which quantifies the impact of pore fluctuations on confined diffusion in terms of the spectral statistics of the channel fluctuations. Our findings demonstrate a complex interplay between transport and surface wiggling: agitation enhances diffusion via the induced fluid flow, but spatial variations in pore geometry can induce a slowing down via entropic trapping, in full agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and existing observations from the literature. Our results elucidate the impact of pore agitation in a broad range of artificial and biological porins, but also, at larger scales, in vascular motion in fungi, intestinal contractions and microfluidic surface waves. These results open up the possibility that transport across membranes can be actively tuned by external stimuli, with potential applications to nanoscale pumping, osmosis and dynamical ultrafiltration.
Luca Canale, Axel Laborieux, Agasthya Aroul Mogane, Laetitia Jubin, Jean Comtet, Antoine Lainé, Lydéric Bocquet, Alessandro Siria, Antoine Niguès
Nature Physics - - DOI:10.1088/1361-6528/aacbad - 2018
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) allows to reconstruct the topography of surface with a resolution in the nanometer range. The exceptional resolution attainable with the AFM makes this instrument a key tool in nanoscience and technology. The core of the set-up relies on the detection of the mechanical properties of a micro-oscillator when approached to a sample to image. Despite the fact that AFM is nowadays a very common instrument for research and development applications, thanks to the exceptional performances and the relative simplicity to use it, the fabrication of the micrometric scale mechanical oscillator is still a very complicated and expensive task requiring a dedicated platform. Being able to perform atomic force microscopy with a macroscopic oscillator would make the instrument more versatile and accessible for an even larger spectrum of applications and audiences. We present for the first time atomic force imaging with a centimetric oscillator. We show how it is possible to perform topographical images with nanometric resolution with a grams tuning fork. The images presented here are obtained with an aluminum tuning fork of centimeter size as sensor on which an accelerometer is glued on one prong to measure the oscillation of the resonator. In addition to the stunning sensitivity, by imaging both in air and in liquid, we show the high versatility of such oscillator. The set up proposed here can be extended to numerous experiments where the probe needs to be heavy and/or very complex as well as the environment.

400 publications.