Université PSL



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Mixed Copolymer Adlayers Allowing Reversible Thermal Control of Single Cell Aspect Ratio.
Laboratoire Biologie cellulaire systémique de la polarité et de la division - Dalier F1, Dubacheva GV1, Coniel M1, Zanchi D1,2, Galtayries A, Piel M, Marie E1, Tribet C1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces - 10(3) 2253-2258 - doi: 10.1021/acsami.7b18513. - 2018
Dynamic guidance of living cells is achieved by fine-tuning and spatiotemporal modulation on artificial polymer layers enabling reversible peptide display. Adjustment of surface composition and interactions is obtained by coadsorption of mixed poly(lysine) derivatives, grafted with either repellent PEG, RGD adhesion peptides, or T-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) strands. Deposition of mixed adlayers provides a straightforward mean to optimize complex substrates, which is here implemented to achieve (1) thermal control of ligand accessibility and (2) adjustment of relative adhesiveness between adjacent micropatterns, while preserving cell attachment during thermal cycles. The reversible polarization of HeLa cells along orthogonal stripes mimics guidance along natural matrices.
Diversification of human plasmacytoid predendritic cells in response to a single stimulus
Laboratoire Biologie cellulaire systémique de la polarité et de la division - Alculumbre SG, Saint-André V, Di Domizio J, Vargas P, Sirven P, Bost P, Maurin M, Maiuri P, Wery M, Roman MS, Savey L, Touzot M, Terrier B, Saadoun D, Conrad C, Gilliet M, Morillon A, Soumelis V
Nat Immunol. - 19(1) 63-75 - doi: 10.1038/s41590-017-0012-z. - 2018
Innate immune cells adjust to microbial and inflammatory stimuli through a process termed environmental plasticity, which links a given individual stimulus to a unique activated state. Here, we report that activation of human plasmacytoid predendritic cells (pDCs) with a single microbial or cytokine stimulus triggers cell diversification into three stable subpopulations (P1-P3). P1-pDCs (PD-L1+CD80-) displayed a plasmacytoid morphology and specialization for type I interferon production. P3-pDCs (PD-L1-CD80+) adopted a dendritic morphology and adaptive immune functions. P2-pDCs (PD-L1+CD80+) displayed both innate and adaptive functions. Each subpopulation expressed a specific coding- and long-noncoding-RNA signature and was stable after secondary stimulation. P1-pDCs were detected in samples from patients with lupus or psoriasis. pDC diversification was independent of cell divisions or preexisting heterogeneity within steady-state pDCs but was controlled by a TNF autocrine and/or paracrine communication loop. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism for diversity and division of labor in innate immune cells.
A conductive hydrogel based on alginate and carbon nanotubes for probing microbial electroactivity
Laboratoire Colloïdes et Matériaux Divisés - Leopold Mottet, Domitille Le Cornec, a Jean-Marc Noe, Frederic Kanoufi, Brigitte Delord, Philippe Poulin, Jerome Bibettea and Nicolas Bremond
Soft Matter - 14 1434 - DOI: 10.1039/c7sm01929g - 2018
Some bacteria can act as catalysts to oxidize (or reduce) organic or inorganic matter with the potential
of generating electrical current. Despite their high value for sustainable energy, organic compound
production and bioremediation, a tool to probe the natural biodiversity and to select most efficient
microbes is still lacking. Compartmentalized cell culture is an ideal strategy for achieving such a goal but
the appropriate compartment allowing cell growth and electron exchange must be tailored. Here, we
develop a conductive composite hydrogel made of a double network of alginate and carbon nanotubes.
Homogeneous mixing of carbon nanotubes within the polyelectrolyte is obtained by a surfactant
assisted dispersion followed by a desorption step for triggering electrical conductivity. Dripping the
mixture in a gelling bath through simple extrusion or a double one allows the formation of either plain
hydrogel beads or liquid core hydrogel capsules. The process is shown to be compatible with the
bacterial culture (Geobacter sulfurreducens). Bacteria can indeed colonize the outer wall of plain beads
or the inner wall of the conductive capsules’ shell that function as an anode from which electrons
produced by the cells are collected.
Flow and fracture near the sol–gel transition of silica nanoparticle suspensions
Laboratoire Microfluidique MEMS et nanostructures - Gustavo E. Gimenes a and Elisabeth Bouchaudbc
Soft Matter - 14 8036-8043 - DOI:10.1039/C8SM01247D - 2018
We analyze the evolution of the mechanical response of a colloidal suspension to an external tensile stress, from fracture to flow, as a function of the distance from the sol–gel transition. We cease to observe cracks at a finite distance from the transition. In an intermediate region where the phenomenon is clearly hysteretic, we observe the coexistence of both flow and fracture. Even when cracks are observed, the material in fact flows over a distance that increases in the vicinity of the transition.
Microfluidic actuators based on temperature-responsive hydrogels
Laboratoire Microfluidique MEMS et nanostructures - Loïc D'Eramo, Benjamin Chollet, Marie Leman, Ekkachai Martwong, Mengxing Li, Hubert Geisler, Jules Dupire, Margaux Kerdraon, Clémence Vergne, Fabrice Monti, Yvette Tran & Patrick Tabeling
Microsystems & Nanoengineering - 4 17069 - doi.org/10.1038/micronano.2017.69 - 2018
The concept of using stimuli-responsive hydrogels to actuate fluids in microfluidic devices is particularly attractive, but limitations, in terms of spatial resolution, speed, reliability and integration, have hindered its development during the past two decades. By patterning and grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) PNIPAM hydrogel films on plane substrates with a 2 μm horizontal resolution and closing the system afterward, we have succeeded in unblocking bottlenecks that thermo-sensitive hydrogel technology has been challenged with until now. In this paper, we demonstrate, for the first time with this technology, devices with up to 7800 actuated micro-cages that sequester and release solutes, along with valves actuated individually with closing and opening switching times of 0.6±0.1 and 0.25±0.15 s, respectively. Two applications of this technology are illustrated in the domain of single cell handling and the nuclear acid amplification test (NAAT) for the Human Synaptojanin 1 gene, which is suspected to be involved in several neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. The performance of the temperature-responsive hydrogels we demonstrate here suggests that in association with their moderate costs, hydrogels may represent an alternative to the actuation or handling techniques currently used in microfluidics, that are, pressure actuated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) valves and droplets.
Interfacial transport with mobile surface charges and consequences for ionic transport in carbon nanotubes
Laboratoire Micromégas - Timothée Mouterde, Lydéric Bocquet
Eur. Phys. - 41 148 - doi.org/10.1140/epje/i2018-11760-2 - 2018
In this paper, we explore the effect of a finite surface charge mobility on the interfacial transport: conductance, streaming currents, electro- and diffusio-osmotic flows. We first show that the surface charge mobility modifies the hydrodynamic boundary condition for the fluid, which introduces a supplementary term depending on the applied electric field. In particular, the resulting slip length is found to decrease inversely with the surface charge. We then derive expressions for the various transport mobilities, highlighting that the surface charge mobility merely moderates the amplification effect of interfacial slippage, to the noticeable exception of diffusio-osmosis and surface conductance. Our calculations, obtained within Poisson-Boltzmann framework, highlight the importance of non-linear electrostatic contributions to predict the small concentration/large charge limiting regimes for the transport mobilities. We discuss these predictions in the context of recent electrokinetic experiments with carbon nanotubes.
Transport and dispersion across wiggling nano-pores
Laboratoire Micromégas - Sophie Marbach, David S. Dean & Lydéric Bocquet
Nature Physics - 14 1108–1113 - doi.org/10.1038/s41567-018-0239-0 - 2018
The transport of fluids at the nanoscale has achieved major breakthroughs over recent years1,2,3,4; however, artificial channels still cannot match the efficiency of biological porins in terms of fluxes or selectivity. Pore shape agitation—due to thermal fluctuations or in response to external stimuli—is believed to facilitate transport in biochannels5,6,7,8,9, but its impact on transport in artificial pores remains largely unexplored. Here we introduce a general theory for transport through thermally or actively fluctuating channels, which quantifies the impact of pore fluctuations on confined diffusion in terms of the spectral statistics of the channel fluctuations. Our findings demonstrate a complex interplay between transport and surface wiggling: agitation enhances diffusion via the induced fluid flow, but spatial variations in pore geometry can induce a slowing down via entropic trapping, in full agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and existing observations from the literature. Our results elucidate the impact of pore agitation in a broad range of artificial and biological porins, but also, at larger scales, in vascular motion in fungi, intestinal contractions and microfluidic surface waves. These results open up the possibility that transport across membranes can be actively tuned by external stimuli, with potential applications to nanoscale pumping, osmosis and dynamical ultrafiltration.
Laboratoire Micromégas - Luca Canale, Axel Laborieux, Agasthya Aroul Mogane, Laetitia Jubin, Jean Comtet, Antoine Lainé, Lydéric Bocquet, Alessandro Siria, Antoine Niguès
Nature Physics - - DOI:10.1088/1361-6528/aacbad - 2018
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) allows to reconstruct the topography of surface with a resolution in the nanometer range. The exceptional resolution attainable with the AFM makes this instrument a key tool in nanoscience and technology. The core of the set-up relies on the detection of the mechanical properties of a micro-oscillator when approached to a sample to image. Despite the fact that AFM is nowadays a very common instrument for research and development applications, thanks to the exceptional performances and the relative simplicity to use it, the fabrication of the micrometric scale mechanical oscillator is still a very complicated and expensive task requiring a dedicated platform. Being able to perform atomic force microscopy with a macroscopic oscillator would make the instrument more versatile and accessible for an even larger spectrum of applications and audiences. We present for the first time atomic force imaging with a centimetric oscillator. We show how it is possible to perform topographical images with nanometric resolution with a grams tuning fork. The images presented here are obtained with an aluminum tuning fork of centimeter size as sensor on which an accelerometer is glued on one prong to measure the oscillation of the resonator. In addition to the stunning sensitivity, by imaging both in air and in liquid, we show the high versatility of such oscillator. The set up proposed here can be extended to numerous experiments where the probe needs to be heavy and/or very complex as well as the environment.
“Dripplon: localized and super fast ripples of water confined between graphene sheets
Laboratoire Micromégas - Hiroaki Yoshida, Vojtěch Kaiser, Benjamin Rotenberg & Lydéric Bocquet
Nature Communications - 1496 - DOI:10.1088/1361-6528/aacbad - 2018
Carbon materials have unveiled outstanding properties as membranes for water transport, both in 1D carbon nanotube and between 2D graphene layers. In the ultimate confinement, water properties however strongly deviate from the continuum, showing exotic properties with numerous counterparts in fields ranging from nanotribology to biology. Here, by means of molecular dynamics, we show a self-organized inhomogeneous structure of water confined between graphene sheets, whereby the very strong localization of water defeats the energy cost for bending the graphene sheets. This leads to a two-dimensional water droplet accompanied by localized graphene ripples, which we call “dripplon.” Additional osmotic effects originating in dissolved impurities are shown to further stabilize the dripplon. Our analysis also reveals a counterintuitive superfast dynamics of the dripplons, comparable to that of individual water molecules. They move like a (nano-) ruck in a rug, with water molecules and carbon atoms exchanging rapidly across the dripplon interface.
Dramatic pressure-sensitive ion conduction in conical nanopores
Laboratoire Micromégas - Laetitia Jubin, Anthony Poggioli, Alessandro Siria, and Lydéric Bocquet
Nature Communications - 115 (16) 4063-4068 - doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1721987115 - 2018
Ion transporters in Nature exhibit a wealth of complex transport properties such as voltage gating, activation, and mechanosensitive behavior. When combined, such processes result in advanced ionic machines achieving active ion transport, high selectivity, or signal processing. On the artificial side, there has been much recent progress in the design and study of transport in ionic channels, but mimicking the advanced functionalities of ion transporters remains as yet out of reach. A prerequisite is the development of ionic responses sensitive to external stimuli. In the present work, we report a counterintuitive and highly nonlinear coupling between electric and pressure-driven transport in a conical nanopore, manifesting as a strong pressure dependence of the ionic conductance. This result is at odds with standard linear response theory and is akin to a mechanical transistor functionality. We fully rationalize this behavior on the basis of the coupled electrohydrodynamics in the conical pore by extending the Poisson–Nernst–Planck–Stokes framework. The model is shown to capture the subtle mechanical balance occurring within an extended spatially charged zone in the nanopore. The pronounced sensitivity to mechanical forcing offers leads in tuning ion transport by mechanical stimuli. The results presented here provide a promising avenue for the design of tailored membrane functionalities.

391 publications.