Comprendre la Microfluidique

Nanofluidics/Microfluidics defined the science of manipulating fluids at a nano and/or microscale and also the related techniques and technologies. At these sizes, fluids' dynamics radically changes compared to those we experience in daily life at a macroscale. Investigating such properties and studying microscopic objects such as cells or proteins requires the control of fluids, hence the use of microfluidic chips. Chips are devices composed of micrometric patterns from a few nanometers to hundreds of micrometers, molded or engraved thanks to high-resolution microfabrication techniques within whichfluids circulate.

Microfluidic chips allow the miniaturization of circuits which considerably decreases the size of designsas those used for screening methods, the amount of reagents for flow chemistry, or of studied objectsfor single-cells experiments. Such devices are well-known and already commercially available such aspregnancy tests, or insulin pumps. Others chips are still under investigation. In the following, we provide an overview of the main applications carried out in the IPGG. A few definitions that characterized microfluidics, and the most common fabrication techniques to achieve microfluidic chips will also be described. We will discuss the future of microfluidics in light of IPGG projects.